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Table 3 A summary of the quality of the evidence using the GRADE approach

From: The effect of cognitive functional therapy for chronic nonspecific low back pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Quality assessment Summary of findings
No of studies Risk of bias Imprecision Inconsistency Indirectness Publication bias No of participants Pooled standardised mean difference (95% confidence intervals) Quality of evidence
Pain for intermediate term
2 Serious risk of bias, indicating downgraded on level due to there was more than 25% of participants from studies Very serious imprecision due to very limited sample sizes (fewer than 400 participants), and no significant difference rate down two levels
Significant
Very Serious
Downgraded two levels due to I2 > 75%, rate down two levels
Not serious
Indirectness, do not downgrade
Undetected 300 -1.38
(-2.78 to 0.02)

VERY LOW
Pain for long term
2 Serious risk of bias, indicating downgraded on level due to there was more than 25% of participants from studies Very serious imprecision due to very limited sample sizes (fewer than 400 participants), and no significant difference rate down two levels
Significant
Serious
Downgraded one level due to I2 > 50%, rate down one level
Not serious
Indirectness, do not downgrade
Undetected 300 -1.01
(-1.92 to -0.10)

VERY LOW
Disability/functional status for intermediate term
3 Serious risk of bias, indicating downgraded on level due to there was more than 25% of participants from studies Serious imprecision due to very limited sample sizes (fewer than 400 participants), rate down one level
Significant
Very Serious
Downgraded two levels due to I2 > 75%, rate down two levels
Serious
Downgraded one level due to different sample
Undetected 333 -0.76
(-1.46 to -0.07)

VERY LOW
Disability/functional status for long term
2 Serious risk of bias, indicating downgraded on level due to there was more than 25% of participants from studies Serious
imprecision due to very limited sample sizes (fewer than 400 participants), rate down one level
Significant
Serious
Downgraded one level due to I2 > 50%, rate down one level
Not serious
Indirectness, do not downgrade
Undetected 300 -8.48
(-11.47 to -5.49)

VERY LOW
Fear of physical activity for intermediate term
2 Serious risk of bias, indicating downgraded on level due to there was more than 25% of participants from studies Serious
imprecision due to very limited sample sizes (fewer than 400 participants), rate down one level
Significant
Serious
Downgraded one level due to I2 > 50%, rate down one level
Not serious
Indirectness, do not downgrade
undetected 300 -3.01
(-5.14 to -0.88)

VERY LOW
Fear of physical activity for long term
2 Serious risk of bias, indicating downgraded on level due to there was more than 25% of participants from studies Serious
imprecision due to very limited sample sizes (fewer than 400 participants), rate down one level
Significant
Very Serious
Downgraded two levels due to I2 > 75%, rate down two levels
Not serious
Indirectness, do not downgrade
Undetected 300 -3.56
(-6.43 to -0.68)

VERY LOW