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Table 2 Multivariate analysis of significant background factors for functional constipation (FC)

From: Background factors involved in the epidemiology of functional constipation in the Japanese population: a cross-sectional study

Items Univariate Multivariate
Odds 95% CI P value* Odds 95% CI P value*
Age 1.023 1.013 1.033 < 0.001** 1.032 1.020 1.045 < 0.001**
Sex (female = 1) 0.353 0.267 0.468 < 0.001** 0.380 0.260 0.498 < 0.001**
BMI 0.942 0.906 0.980 0.003**     
Jobs and education
Office worker 0.753 0.581 0.976 0.032**     
 Retired or unemployed 0.677 0.449 1.023 0.064     
 Homemaker 2.255 1.685 3.018 < 0.001**     
 Bachelor’s degree or higher 0.634 0.485 0.827 < 0.001**     
Past history of disease
 Hypertension 0.629 0.414 0.956 0.030**     
 Type 2 diabetes mellitus 0.150 0.048 0.473 0.001** 0.191 0.058 0.627 0.006**
 Dyslipidemia 0.689 0.459 1.034 0.072     
 Anemia 0.213 0.149 0.305 < 0.001** 0.173 0.119 0.252 < 0.001**
Rome III criteria question items
 Improvement with defecation 1.188 0.891 1.585 0.241     
 Onset associated with a change in frequency of stool 0.719 0.558 0.927 0.011** 0.689 0.477 0.996 0.048**
 Onset associated with a change in form or appearance of stool 0.807 0.626 1.040 0.098     
 Straining during at least 25% of defecation 2.060 1.502 2.825 < 0.001**     
 Lumpy or hard stools at least 25% of defecations 2.535 1.854 3.468 < 0.001**     
 Sensation of incomplete evacuation for at least 25% of defecation 3.578 2.451 5.223 < 0.001** 1.953 1.283 2.974 0.002**
 Sensation of hard evacuation 12.56 5.899 26.744 < 0.001** 8.152 3.600 1.846 < 0.001**
 Manual maneuvers to facilitate digital evacuation for at least 25% of defecation 1.329 0.801 2.208 0.271     
 Manual maneuvers to facilitate support of the pelvic floor for at least 25% of defecation 2.334 1.716 3.176 < 0.001** 1.587 1.123 2.241 0.009**
 Loose stools are rarely present without the use of laxatives
 Bristol stool type 4 0.395 0.270 0.578 < 0.001** 0.585 0.386 0.888 0.012**
Source of laxative
 History of laxative use 5.851 4.341 7.886 < 0.001**     
 Pharmacy 2.684 2.056 3.505 < 0.001**     
 Internet 2.103 1.446 3.015 < 0.001**     
Acceptable laxative cost
 More than 1000 yen 1.806 1.384 2.357 < 0.001**     
  1. *The level of significance is set at P < 0.05
  2. **Significant difference between groups