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Table 4 Common symptoms by the PH and CD groups

From: Health-related benefits and adverse events associated with yoga classes among participants that are healthy, in poor health, or with chronic diseases

NRS score
Symptoms N % First Last UPV FPV d (n)
PH group
Easy fatigability 39 34.2 6.5±2.2 4.5±2.4 0.001 0.004 0.87 (30)
Shoulder stiffness 35 30.7 7.1±2.3 4.9±2.9 0.001 0.004 0.85 (26)
Low back pain 30 26.3 6.0±1.8 4.4±2.6 0.006 0.013 0.74 (23)
Coldness 24 21.1 7.8±1.5 5.5±2.1 <0.001 0.002 1.21 (13)
Headache 15 13.2 5.7±2.7 2.5±2.5 0.006 0.013 1.23 (11)
Insomnia 14 12.3 7.6±1.5 4.7±2.4 <0.001 0.002 1.46 (13)
CD group
Easy fatigability 32 23.0 6.6±2.3 4.9±1.6 0.010 0.019 0.86 (23)
Low back pain 26 18.7 5.7±2.4 4.3±2.8 0.001 0.004 0.54 (23)
Knee joint pain 19 13.7 6.4±2.4 4.6±2.8 0.022 0.036 0.67 (17)
Shoulder stiffness 19 13.7 7.1±2.1 4.6±2.8 0.003 0.008 1.01 (16)
Anxiety 18 12.9 7.3±1.7 5.4±2.2 0.002 0.005 0.98 (14)
Insomnia 14 10.1 7.3±2.2 6.2±2.3 0.040 0.057 0.50 (10)
  1. Values are the mean ± standard deviation. PH participants in poor health (n=114), CD participants with chronic diseases (n=139), First the first yoga class, Last the last yoga class. The degree of symptoms is shown by a numerical rating scale (NRS) with 10 indicating the worst. N illustrates the number of participants who complained of any symptom. The number in parenthesis is the number of participants who scored their degree of symptoms in both the first and the last periods. As data from participants that had missing values were excluded from analysis, statistical analyses were conducted using the number in the parentheses. Multiple symptoms were included. Unadjusted P values. FPV FDR-adjusted P values for multiple comparisons (First vs Last, paired t-test) d effect size between Pre and Post (Cohen’s d)