Skip to main content

Table 4 Estimated mean difference and standardized mean difference with 90% confidence interval from LMM

From: Pilot study of a basic individualized cognitive behavioral therapy program for chronic pain in Japan

 Baseline to post-treatmentBaseline to follow-up
 MDSMD (Hedge’s g)MDSMD(Hedge’s g)
Overall QOL measures
 EQ5D-5 L (primary outcome)0.10 [0.03, 0.18]−0.72 [−1.38, − 0.05]0.09 [0.01, 0.16]−0.60 [−1.22, 0.02]
 SF-12-PCS1.78 [−4.06, 7.63]−0.18 [− 0.82, 0.47]5.49 [− 0.50, 11.48]− 0.53 [− 1.15, 0.08]
 SF-12-MCS7.70 [2.12, 13.28]−0.80 [−1.46, − 0.13]5.45 [− 0.27, 11.17]− 0.55 [− 1.17, 0.06]
 SF-12-RCS8.21 [3.56, 12.87]−0.94 [−1.62, − 0.26]7.10 [2.32, 11.89]−0.80 [−1.43, − 0.17]
Pain severity / Disability
 NRS summary score−0.21 [− 0.83, 0.40]0.19 [− 0.45, 0.84]0.19 [− 0.44, 0.82]− 0.17 [− 0.78, 0.44]
 PDAS−4.85 [−10.33, 0.63]0.51 [−0.14, 1.16]−2.34 [−7.94, 3.26]0.24 [−0.36, 0.85]
Pain-related psychological variables
 PCS−11.04 [− 17.23, −4.85]0.98 [0.30, 1.67]−12.34 [− 18.69, −5.98]1.08 [0.43, 1.73]
 TSK-11−2.83 [−6.03, 0.37]0.51 [−0.14, 1.16]−3.91 [− 7.19, − 0.63]0.70 [0.07, 1.32]
 PSEQ9.89 [3.66, 16.12]−0.85 [−1.52, − 0.18]12.21 [5.81, 18.61]−1.03 [− 1.68, − 0.39]
Depressive symptoms
 PHQ-9 total−3.45 [−5.75, −1.14]0.86 [0.19, 1.54]−3.95 [−6.31, −1.58]0.97 [0.33, 1.62]
  1. LMM Linear mixed model, MD Mean difference, SMD Standardized mean difference (Hedge’s g), QOL Quality of life, EQ5D-5 L EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire five level, SF-12-PCS Medical Outcomes Study 12-Item Short Form Health Survey-Physical Component Summary, MCS Mental Component Summary, RCS Role/Social Component Summary, NRS Numerical Rating Scale, PDAS Pain Disability Assessment Scale, PCS Pain Catastrophizing Scale, TSK-11 Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia eleven, PSEQ Pain Self-Efficacy Questionnaire, PHQ-9 Patient Health Questionnaire-9