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Table 2 Characteristics of included studies

From: Effects of reflexology on premenstrual syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Author (Publication year) Country Design of Study Sample Size /Group Type of Intervention Intervention Time Schedule Population (Mean or age range) Outcomes Measures Instrument
Oleson (1993) USA RCT 35
EG:18
CG:17
EG: Foot, hand and ear reflexology; CG: Placebo reflexology 30 min Females with Premenstrual symptoms (Mean age: EG:37.2; CG:32.7) Total PMS; Somatic symbtoms; Psychological symbtoms PMS scale (made by researcher)
Kim (2002) South Korea Quasi expermental desin 40
EG:20
CG:20
EG: Foot reflexology; CG: no treatment 60 min Female college student (range: 21–33 years) Total PMS and dysmenorrhea Keele VAS and opening records
Kim (2004) South Korea RCT 48
EG:24
CG:24
EG: Self foot reflexology; CG: no treatment 35 min High school girls (range: U) Total PMS; Behavioral symbtoms; Psychological symbtoms; Dysmenorrhea MDQ; VAS
Lee (2011) South Korea Quasi expermental desin 61
EG:37
CG:24
EG: Aroma-foot-reflexology; CG: no treatment 60 min Female college student (Mean age: EG:19.3; CG19.4) Total PMS and dysmenorrhea; Lower abdominalskin temperature PMS scale (made by researcher); VAS; Portable digital skin thermometer
Abdollahi Fard (2013) Iran Single blind RCT 90
EG:45
CG:45
EG: Foot reflexology; CG: Placebo reflexology 30 min Female college student (Mean age: EG:20.8; CG:20.5) Total PMS; Somatic symbtoms; Psychological symbtoms Daily record scale
Baghdassari (2015) Iran RCT 40
EG:20
CG:20
EG: Foot reflexology; CG: no treatment 60 min Females with Premenstrual symptoms (Range: 31–45) Total PMS PMS scale
Nalini (2015) India Quasi experimental 30
EG:15
CG:15
EG: Foot, hand reflexology; CG: no treatment 40 min Female college student (Range: 17–20) Total PMS; Somatic symbtoms; Psychological symbtoms; Emotional symptoms; Physiological symptoms PMS scale
Prema (2017) India RCT 30
EG:15
CG:15
EG: Foot reflexology; CG: no treatment 20 min Adolescent girls
(Mean age: EG:U; CG:U)
Total PMS; Psychological symbtoms VAS
Shafaie (2018) Iran Double blind RCT 101
EG:52
CG:49
EG: Foot reflexology; CG: Placebo reflexology 30 min Female college student (Mean age: EG:22.3; CG:21.46) Total PMS; Somatic symbtoms; Behavioral symptoms: Psychological symbtoms Daily record scale
  1. EG: Experimental group; CG: Control group; PMS: Premenstrual syndrome; RCT: Randomized controlled trial; MDQ: Menstural Distress Questionnaire; VAS: Visual analogue scale; U: unclear