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Table 2 Multivariate analysisa of demographic and known risk factors in association with subsequent disease progressionb in 240 patients with chronic hepatitis C

From: Inhibition of emotional needs and emotional wellbeing predict disease progression of chronic hepatitis C patients: an 8-year prospective study

  Model 1c Model 2d
Factor HR (95 % CI) P-value HR (95 % CI) P-value
Age, by 10 years 1.31 (0.88–1.96) 0.18 1.39 (0.93–2.09) 0.11
Female sex 1.10 (0.56–2.19) 0.78 1.28 (0.64–2.57) 0.48
Cirrhosis 4.23 (2.15–8.32) <0.001 4.36 (2.16–8.79) <0.001
Platelet count <100,000/mm3 1.41 (0.72–2.76) 0.31 1.57 (0.80–3.08) 0.19
Alanine aminotransferase >= 40 IU/l (baseline value) 1.02 (0.55–1.90) 0.94 0.84 (0.43–1.62) 0.60
Alpha fetoprotein >= 20 μg/l 2.50 (1.26–4.95) 0.009 2.35 (1.12–4.91) 0.023
Diabetes 1.17 (0.56–2.44) 0.68 1.14 (0.54–2.38) 0.73
Alcohol-drinking, currente 1.00 (0.42–2.41) 1.00 1.08 (0.45–2.60) 0.87
Alcohol-drinking, paste 1.56 (0.73–3.35) 0.25 1.42 (0.64–3.15) 0.39
Alanine aminotransferase >= 40 IU/l (recent value) f    2.21 (1.13–4.33) 0.021
Sustained virological response to antiviral therapyg    1.66 (0.60–4.60) 0.33
Sustained biological response to antiviral therapyg    0.94 (0.38–2.31) 0.89
No response to antiviral therapyg    1.17 (0.55–2.49) 0.68
  1. HR hazard ratio, CI confidence interval. aUsing Cox proportional hazards models based on time-to-event data where event was defined as death associated with hepatitis or diagnosis of HCC. bDisease progression was defined as either the first diagnosis of HCC or hepatitis-related death, such as hepatic failure and upper gastro-intestinal bleeding. cDemographic and known risk factors for HCC at baseline. dDemographic and baseline risk factors, and treatment-related factors during the follow-up period. eNo alcohol-drinking as reference. fTime-dependent variable, based on a latest measurement at every time-point when an event occurred. gTime-dependent variable, no antiviral therapy as reference