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Table 1 Results of Perceived Pain Intensity, subjective helplessness, and salivary cortisol levels in the experimental groups

From: Helplessness and perceived pain intensity: relations to cortisol concentrations after electrocutaneous stimulation in healthy young men

  Total sample (n = 64) Controllable condition (n = 32) Uncontrollable condition (n = 32) t-value (df = 62) t-test p-value
Pain intensity perception (post exposure) 40 ± 29 (0 - 98) 32 ± 29 48 ± 27 -2.333 P = 0.023
Subjective helplessness AUC (60 min) 8 ± 42 (-135 - 97) -13 ± 35 28 ± 37 -4.554 P < 0.0005
Salivary cortisol AUC (nmol/l*60 min) -20 ± 140 (-516 - 452) -69 ± 124 29 ± 139 -2.979 P = 0.004
  1. AUC, area under the response curve