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Table 2 Sleep characteristics for the night before and the night after forest walking

From: A before and after comparison of the effects of forest walking on the sleep of a community-based sample of people with sleep complaints

     n Night before forest walking Night after forest walking    Statistical test Comment
Actual sleep time (min)    42    365.9 ± 89.4    419.8 ± 128.7    p = 0.02a   
Actual sleep (%)    42    86.9 ± 7.4    88.0 ± 6.9    p = 0.4a   
Sleep latency (min)    42    20.1 ± 32.7    10.4 ± 9.7    p = 0.07a   
Immobile time (min    42    356.3 ± 89.1    410.2 ± 127.7    p = 0.02a   
Sleep start time (median)    42    23:48    23:46    
Sleep end time (median)    42    6:58    7:18    
St. Mary's Hospital Sleep Questionnaire       
   Self-rated depth of sleep (score)    64    4.7 ± 1.4    5.1 ± 1.5    p = 0.03b 1: Very light 7: Deep
   Number of awakenings (times)    66    1.48 ± 1.24    1.45 ± 1.34    p = 0.7b 0: Not at all 7: More than six times
   Sleep quality (score)    63    4.0 ± 1.1    4.3 ± 1.2    p = 0.04b 1: Very badly 6: Very well
   Alertness on waking (score)    62    3.4 ± 1.2    3.6 ± 1.3    p = 0.054b 1: Very drowsy 6: Very alert
   Satisfaction with sleep (score)    63    3.3 ± 1.0    3.4 ± 1.1    p = 0.3b 1: Very unsatisfied 5: Completely satisfied
   Early morning awakening (n, % yes)    60    10, 16.7%    8, 13.3%    p = 0.7c 1: No 2: Yes
   Difficultly falling asleep (score)    64    1.3 ± 0.5    1.2 ± 0.5    p = 0.3b 1: None or very little 4: Extreme difficulty
  1. Mean ± SD, a: Paired-Student's t-test, b: Paired Wilcoxon signed-rank test, c: McNemar's test.