Path model of drinking structure for girls. The final path model of drinking structure for girls, χ2 (d.f. = 2, N = 1,396) = 6.20, p = 0.045; CFI = 0.996, TLI = 0.978, and RMSEA = 0.039. Dashed single-headed arrows mean that the regression weights were restricted as zero. Straight single-headed arrows indicate standardized path coefficients. e1, e2, and e3 indicate unmeasured errors associated with each of the variables in the model. Double-headed arrow indicates covariance of exogenous variable. Variables with straight single-headed arrows indicate significant and direct effects to alcohol use at p < .05. Self-assertive efficacy to resist peer pressure and parental involvement indicate significant indirect effects to alcohol use through the mediators, number of friends who drink alcohol and school adjustment, at p < .05.