Open Access

Epidemiology of anorexia nervosa in Japanese adolescents

  • Mari Hotta1Email author,
  • Reiko Horikawa2,
  • Hiroyo Mabe3,
  • Shin Yokoyama4,
  • Eiko Sugiyama5,
  • Tadato Yonekawa6,
  • Masamitsu Nakazato6,
  • Yuri Okamoto7,
  • Chisato Ohara8 and
  • Yoshihiro Ogawa9
BioPsychoSocial MedicineThe official journal of the Japanese Society of Psychosomatic Medicine20159:17

DOI: 10.1186/s13030-015-0044-2

Received: 19 May 2014

Accepted: 16 July 2015

Published: 14 August 2015

Abstract

Background

No epidemiologic survey examining eating disorders in Japan has been done at a national level since 1992. The prevalence of anorexia nervosa, as assessed by questionnaires to hospitals, is thought to be underestimated because patients with anorexia nervosa tend to avoid consultations. In conformity with the School Health and Safety Act of Japan, schools are required to have physicians perform a medical examination of students every year. The teachers in charge of health education and school physicians determine the height, weight, and health condition, and examine the medical records of each student. Therefore, we as members of the Survey Committee for Eating Disorders of the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare conducted an epidemiologic survey using questionnaires sent to schools in seven prefectures to determine the current prevalence of anorexia nervosa among adolescents.

Methods

We sent a questionnaire to elementary, junior high, and senior high schools. Questionnaires contained items on the number of students, patients with anorexia nervosa in each grade who were diagnosed by specialists, and students who the school physician strongly suspected to have anorexia nervosa but who did not undergo a clinical examination in a medical institution.

Results

We found patients of both sexes with anorexia nervosa aged 9–10 years in elementary schools. The point prevalence of anorexia nervosa for girls, including strongly suspected cases, in the three grades of junior high school and three grades of senior high school were 0–0.17 %, 0–0.21 %, 0.17-0.40 %, 0.05-0.56 %, 0.17-0.42 % and 0.09-0.43 %, respectively. We also confirmed a prominent sex difference in the prevalence of anorexia nervosa. The prevalence of boys was one third that of girls in some prefectures. One third to one half of diagnosed and strongly suspected students with anorexia nervosa had not received medical consultation or treatment.

Conclusions

Although the prevalence of anorexia nervosa had regional differences in Japan, it has reached levels comparable to those in Western societies. Because no eating disorder center exists and the treatment environment is poor, national action to address this disease is a pressing need in Japan.

Keywords

Anorexia nervosa Epidemiology Prevalence Adolescent Eating disorder center Japan

Background

Anorexia nervosa is associated with various types of medical morbidity due to malnutrition [1] and a significant mortality rate in adolescents [2]. The last survey performed in Japan at a national level was done in 1992 by the Survey Committee for Eating Disorders of the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare who sent questionnaires to hospitals with 300 or more beds [3]. The prevalence of anorexia nervosa of female patients aged 10 to 29 years was 0.025 % to 0.031 %. Based on a questionnaire sent to hospitals and clinics in Niigata prefecture, which faces the Sea of Japan and had the 14th largest population in Japan in 1997, the prevalence of anorexia nervosa of female residents aged 15 to 29 years was 0.017 % [4]. In contrast, the prevalence of anorexia nervosa as assessed by questionnaires returned by schools was higher than that obtained from medical facilities [3]; in that study, the prevalences of anorexia nervosa for the junior and senior high school girls of Kyoto were 0.24 % and 0.15 %, respectively. It was thought that the prevalence obtained based on questionnaires sent to medical facilities might underestimate disease prevalence because patients with anorexia nervosa may refuse or not seek consultation [5].

In conformity with the School Health and Safety Act of Japan, school physicians have to perform a medical examination for students every year. The teachers in charge of health education in Japan complete a curriculum for adolescent health and some have a school-nurse license. Every school has a school physician, whose specialty is internal medicine, pediatrics, or gynecology. The teachers in charge of health education and school physicians determine height, weight, and health condition and review the medical records of each student.

School physicians and teachers in charge of health education list students who show poor weight gain, lose weight in comparison with the last year, or have a body weight lower than 80 % of the expected body weight in this annual medical examination. The expected weight of a child is based on height and indexes prescribed to age and gender. Growth curves are also drawn to identify growth retardation. These health care professionals usually see students with very low weight to identify the clinical characteristics of anorexia nervosa, including amenorrhea, lanugo, bradycardia, constipation, hypotension, hypothermia, and edema, which are described in the diagnostic criteria of The Survey Committee for Eating Disorders of the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, and also ask the students questions according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual fourth edition (DSM-IV) criteria. When a student is a strongly suspected case of anorexia nervosa, the school physician advises the parents or guardians to consult with a specialist.

In this study, the Survey Committee performed an epidemiologic survey of anorexia nervosa by sending questionnaires to schools in seven prefectures in Japan to obtain updated prevalence data.

Methods

A questionnaire was sent to principals and the teachers in charge of health education at junior and senior high schools in Tokyo, Hokkaido, Hiroshima, Nagano, Kumamoto, Yamaguchi, and Miyazaki, which had respective population rankings during this survey of 1, 8, 12, 16, 23, 25, and 36 of the 47 Japanese prefectures, and to elementary schools in six prefectures (same as the above except for Hokkaido). Tokyo is the capital of Japan. Hokkaido is the northernmost prefecture. Nagano is a mountainous prefecture in the center of the country. Hiroshima and Yamaguchi are located in the west of Honshu, the main island. Kumamoto and Miyazaki prefectures are located on the island of Kyushu. The questionnaire gathered background on each school, and the number of students with anorexia nervosa, including those with strongly suspected anorexia nervosa, in each grade at the time of the survey. We used the DSM-IV criteria for anorexia nervosa in addition to the criteria for anorexia nervosa put forth by the Survey Committee for Eating Disorders of the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare (Table 1) [6]. The build of Japanese is smaller than that of Caucasian. Based on the DSM-IV criteria, many healthy girls with regular menstruation who are at 85 % of normal weight are selected for screening for anorexia nervosa. In this study, we used a body weight less than 80 % of the ideal body weight based on the Japanese criteria to identify patients with anorexia nervosa. In the present study, we may have overlooked patients with anorexia nervosa who met only the DSM-IV criteria.
Table 1

The diagnostic criteria of anorexia nervosa put forth by The Survey Committee for Eating Disorders of Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare

1

Weight loss of more than 20 % of normal weight, lasting longer than 3 months.

2

Abnormal eating behavior involving food restriction, bulimic episodes, and eating by stealth.

3

Disturbances in the way in which one’s body weight or shape is experienced and intense fear of gaining weight, even though underweight.

4

Onset younger than 30 years.

5

In females, amenorrhea, as well as other clinical symptoms including lanugo, bradycardia, constipation, hypotension, hypothermia or edema.

6

Negation of illness including other psychiatric disorders that account for anorexia and weight loss.

The questionnaire did not ask the teachers in charge of health education or the school physicians about the types of anorexia nervosa because they may not always recognize the binge eating/purging-type without a report from the student.

Japanese compulsory education begins when children are six to seven years old. They study for six years at an elementary school and then three years at a junior high school. The percent of junior high school students who go on to senior high school in Japan is more than 97 %. Japanese senior high schools use a three-year system. A senior high school student’s age ranges from 15 to 18 years. We provided a written explanation of this study to the parents of the students in each school. Based on the judgment of the principal, personal data can be provided to a research team when its goal is to benefit students and the data are provided anonymously. The study protocol was approved by the institutional review board of each author. This study was also carried out with the permission of the Board of Education in each of the seven prefectures.

Results and discussion

Table 2 shows data on the total number of students enrolled in the seven prefectures according to the School Basic Survey by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, the number of subjects who participated in this study, the participation rate, and the number of students diagnosed with anorexia nervosa, including those with strongly suspected anorexia nervosa, for each grade. Participation rates for the questionnaire varied by school and by prefecture. In Tokyo, elementary and junior high schools in a limited area participated in the study and those subjects represented only about 5 % of the total number of children. Although the Education Bureau of Tokyo prefecture requested schools to cooperate with our survey and we sent a collection letter to schools that did not provide answers, some schools seemed to resist information disclosure. In contrast, about 60 % of students in every grade in Yamaguchi and Kumamoto participated in the research.
Table 2

Prevalence of anorexia nervosa (AN) in adolescents from 7 prefectures in Japan

Prefecture year of survey

Sex

Data

Elementary school grade

Junior high school year

Senior high school year

3th

4th

5th

6th

1st

2nd

3rd

1st

2nd

3rd

Tokyo 2010

Girls

Total

  

48652

48886

51178

51657

50766

53332

50046

48390

Subjects

  

2893

2900

2256

2285

2259

22205

22329

21550

% Total

  

5.9

5.9

4.4

4.4

4.4

41.6

44.6

44.5

No. with AN

  

2

3

2

4

9

47

60

56

Prevalence of AN

  

0.07

0.10

0.09

0.18

0.40

0.21

0.27

0.26

Boys

Total

  

51049

51230

51833

52367

51446

51091

47990

46466

Subjects

  

2893

2834

2166

2149

2092

15228

15140

13828

% Total

  

5.7

5.5

4.2

4.1

4.1

29.8

31.5

29.8

No. with AN

  

0

1

0

1

1

2

1

2

Prevalence of AN

  

0.00

0.04

0.00

0.05

0.05

0.01

0.01

0.01

Kumamoto 2011

Girls

Total

  

8432

8490

8498

8603

8804

8379

8390

8062

Subjects

  

4860

4997

5113

5116

5150

5206

5131

5044

% Total

  

57.6

58.9

60.2

59.5

58.5

62.1

61.2

62.6

No. with AN

  

0

1

2

5

10

9

12

18

Prevalence of AN

  

0.00

0.02

0.04

0.10

0.19

0.17

0.23

0.36

Boys

Total

  

9052

8880

9134

9123

9394

8823

8727

8280

Subjects

  

5027

5207

5277

5490

5451

6116

5784

5643

% Total

  

55.5

58.6

57.8

60.2

58.0

69.3

66.3

68.1

No. with AN

  

0

0

0

0

0

2

2

2

Prevalence of AN

  

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.03

0.04

0.04

Nagano Seniors 2011 others 2012

Girls

Total

  

10074

10236

10298

10304

10346

10056

10211

9274

Subjects

  

8746

8629

9120

9165

9195

2589

2644

2396

% Total

  

87.0

84.3

88.6

88.9

88.9

25.7

25.9

25.8

No. with AN

  

6

9

11

14

22

4

7

4

Prevalence of AN

  

0.07

0.10

0.12

0.15

0.24

0.15

0.27

0.17

Boys

Total

  

10659

10875

10926

10858

10939

10255

10436

9678

Subjects

  

9222

9166

9631

9658

9600

2239

2405

2279

% Total

  

86.5

84.3

88.1

88.9

87.8

21.8

23.0

23.5

No. with AN

  

2

2

0

2

2

0

0

0

Prevalence of AN

  

0.02

0.02

0.00

0.02

0.02

0.00

0.00

0.00

Hiroshima 2013

Girls

Total

 

12740

12728

13155

12953

13050

13277

12655

12360

11870

Subjects

 

4454

4383

4426

4122

4213

4736

2849

2808

2798

% Total

 

35.0

34.4

33.6

31.8

32.3

35.7

22.5

22.7

23.6

No. with AN

 

4

3

6

7

9

16

16

12

12

Prevalence of AN

 

0.09

0.07

0.14

0.17

0.21

0.34

0.56

0.43

0.43

Boys

Total

 

13323

13438

13785

13699

13693

14025

12824

12436

11838

Subjects

 

4561

4646

4426

4411

4641

4399

2290

2242

2202

% Total

 

34.2

34.6

32.1

32.2

33.9

31.4

17.9

18.0

18.6

No. with AN

 

1

1

1

0

1

1

0

1

0

Prevalence of AN

 

0.02

0.02

0.02

0.00

0.02

0.02

0.00

0.05

0.00

Miyazaki Seniors 2013 others 2012

Girls

Total

 

5201

5333

5445

5321

5378

5700

5433

5283

5197

Subjects

 

1008

1074

1082

333

337

336

4187

4173

4270

% Total

 

19.4

20.1

19.9

6.3

6.3

5.9

77.1

79.0

82.2

No. with AN

 

0

0

0

0

0

1

2

7

4

Prevalence of AN

 

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.30

0.05

0.17

0.09

Boys

Total

 

5399

5655

5594

5568

5882

5873

5600

5540

5327

Subjects

 

1024

1141

1066

341

378

343

4488

4410

4250

% Total

 

19.0

20.2

19.1

6.1

6.4

5.8

80.1

79.6

79.8

No. with AN

 

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

Prevalence of AN

 

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.02

0.00

Yamaguchi 2013

Girls

Total

5751

5943

6154

6346

6198

6228

6354

5863

5820

5594

Subjects

3215

3237

3433

3615

3567

3578

3676

3930

3897

3714

% Total

55.9

54.5

55.8

57.0

57.6

57.5

57.9

67.0

67.0

66.4

No. with AN

0

1

3

2

5

1

7

5

11

10

Prevalence of AN

0.00

0.03

0.09

0.06

0.14

0.03

0.19

0.13

0.28

0.26

Boys

Total

6126

6187

6266

6665

6370

6606

6621

5947

5773

5596

Subjects

3367

3440

3468

3718

3645

3786

3740

3990

3866

3734

% Total

55.0

55.6

55.3

55.8

57.2

57.3

56.5

67.1

67.0

66.7

No. with AN

0

1

0

0

1

1

0

2

3

1

Prevalence of AN

0.00

0.03

0.00

0.00

0.03

0.03

0.00

0.05

0.08

0.03

Hokkaido 2013

Girls

Total

    

22345

22500

23247

22055

21579

21424

Subjects

    

8924

9007

9211

10170

9667

9582

% Total

    

39.9

40.0

39.6

46.1

44.8

44.7

No. with AN

    

7

8

16

6

18

18

Prevalence of AN

    

0.08

0.09

0.17

0.06

0.19

0.19

Boys

Total

    

23096

23443

24326

21130

22154

21256

Subjects

    

9107

9217

9608

9569

9592

9230

% Total

    

39.4

39.3

39.5

45.3

43.3

43.4

No. with AN

    

1

2

4

1

1

2

Prevalence of AN

    

0.01

0.02

0.04

0.01

0.01

0.02

Total: a number of all children or students in a prefecture according to the School Basic Survey by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare

Subjects: a number of subjects in the present study

We confirmed that anorexia nervosa was predominant in girls. This is the first study in Japan that examined the prevalence of anorexia nervosa among children 12 years old or younger. We found patients of both sexes in the fourth grade in elementary schools (aged 9–10 years) with anorexia nervosa. For junior high school girls, the prevalence increased in a straight line and became highest among third-year students. For senior high school girls, the peak prevalence was observed in the second or third year in all prefectures except for Hiroshima. The point prevalences of anorexia nervosa for girls, including strongly suspected cases in the three grades of junior high school and three grades of senior high school were 0–0.17 %, 0–0.21 %, 0.17-0.40 %, 0.05-0.56 %, 0.17-0.42 %, and 0.09-0.43 %, respectively. We also confirmed a prominent sex difference in the prevalence of anorexia nervosa, with the prevalence of boys one third that of girls in senior high schools in Yamaguchi. One third to one half of those diagnosed with anorexia nervosa or with strongly suspected anorexia did not receive medical treatment (data not shown).

We demonstrated the recent prevalence of anorexia nervosa, including strongly suspected cases of anorexia nervosa, among adolescents in seven prefectures in Japan. We cannot show evidence to explain the regional differences in the prevalence at the present stage. Although there were regional differences among prefectures, the prevalence of anorexia nervosa in this study was similar or higher than the rates reported in a previous epidemiologic study using the same survey method as the present study [3]. Our report is also the first on the prevalence of anorexia nervosa among elementary school children. Because anorexia nervosa before menarche can retard growth and lower peak bone mass [7, 8] preventing this disorder, early detection, early consultation, and communication between parents, physicians, and schools are pressing needs.

Since the 1960s, eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa began to be recognized as an important health problem among adolescent girls and young women in Western societies, and their prevalence has increased over time [9]. Although the survey methods and ages of the subjects in other studies differed from those in our study, the prevalence of anorexia nervosa was shown to be 0.3 % of young females in the Netherlands [10], 0.5 % of teenaged girls in Germany [11] 0.3 % of secondary school students in Hungary [12], and 0.2-0.3 % of girls aged 13 to 18 years in the United States [13]. Although it was previously reported that the prevalence of anorexia nervosa in Japan is lower than that for European Caucasian populations [4], we showed that the prevalence among adolescents in Japan is near that of developed European countries and the United States.

As shown in other studies [14, 15], adolescent girls with eating disorders often refuse consultations with a physician, never seek treatment, or are untreated. One third to one half of the students with anorexia nervosa in the present study had not consulted physicians. Unfortunately, there is no eating disorder center in Japan, which leads to a poor treatment environment. The establishment of an eating disorder center can contribute at a national level to education for physicians and paramedical professionals, research support, and a public awareness campaign on eating disorders. Medical administration policies should be considered based on the results of the current study. Few hospitals employ specialists in eating disorders. These two factors may contribute to the low consultation rates found in the present study.

There are several critical limitations to this study. First, prevalence was estimated using indirect information obtained from schools. It is possible that teachers in charge of health education and school physicians were unable to identify milder cases of anorexia nervosa. Second, only seven prefectures participated. Many prefectural Boards of Education refused to participate because of the pressure of additional work, and some schools refused to participate due to privacy concerns. Third, participation rates for the questionnaire varied by school and by prefecture.

Conclusions

In conclusion, medical facilities and treatment environments conductive to the treatment of for eating disorders need to be developed in Japan because the prevalence of anorexia nervosa among adolescents in this survey was similar to that found in European countries and the United States. It is clear that this health concern needs to be addressed.

Declarations

Acknowledgments

We would like to thank the principals and teachers in charge of health education who cooperated with this study, and the Boards of Education of Tokyo, Kumamoto, Nagano, Hiroshima, Miyazaki, Yamaguchi, and Hokkaido prefectures. We also thank Mrs. Sayuri Harada and Ms. Izumi Kato for their assistance. This study was supported by a grant from the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan.

Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

Authors’ Affiliations

(1)
Health Services Center, National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies
(2)
Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, National Center for Child Health and Development
(3)
Department of Child Development, Kumamoto University Hospital
(4)
Department of Psychiatry, Nagano Red Cross Hospital
(5)
Department of Health and Nutrition, Nagano Prefectural College
(6)
Division of Neurology, Respiratory, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Miyazaki
(7)
Health Service Center, Hiroshima University
(8)
Institute of Women’s Health, Tokyo Women’s Medical University
(9)
Department of Molecular Endocrinology and Metabolism, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University

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