Functional near-infrared spectroscopy studies in children
© Nagamitsu et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2012
Received: 8 December 2011
Accepted: 20 March 2012
Published: 20 March 2012
Psychosomatic and developmental behavioral medicine in pediatrics has been the subject of significant recent attention, with infants, school-age children, and adolescents frequently presenting with psychosomatic, behavioral, and psychiatric symptoms. These may be a consequence of insecurity of attachment, reduced self-confidence, and peer -relationship conflicts during their developmental stages. Developmental cognitive neuroscience has revealed significant associations between specific brain lesions and particular cognitive dysfunctions. Thus, identifying the biological deficits underlying such cognitive dysfunction may provide new insights into therapeutic prospects for the management of those symptoms in children. Recent advances in noninvasive neuroimaging techniques, and especially functional near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), have contributed significant findings to the field of developmental cognitive neuroscience in pediatrics. We present here a comprehensive review of functional NIRS studies of children who have developed normally and of children with psychosomatic and behavioral disorders.
KeywordsDevelopment Children Cognitive neuroscience Near-infrared spectroscopy
The medical management and treatment of children with psychosomatic, behavioral, and psychiatric disorders have gained recent attention among pediatricians because of the increased number of such patients visiting outpatient clinics. According to a nationwide epidemiological survey in Japan, 5.8% of all children who visited an outpatient pediatric clinic on a given day were considered to have a psychosomatic or psychosocial disorder . As most pediatricians are not accustomed to examining these children, the Japanese Society of Psychosomatic Pediatrics has published clinical practice guidelines, which provide recommendations for the assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of pediatric psychosomatic disorders in primary care settings . However, patient-reported outcome measurements may be required to establish clear evidence-based assessment of the effectiveness of these guidelines. Furthermore, better scientific understanding of the biological mechanisms underlying these disorders would highlight the significant associations between physical symptoms and the mind.
Developmental cognitive neuroscience in children is a rapidly growing research field that seeks to understand how the development of a child's brain is involved in the growth of the child's mind. In particular, advances in functional neuroimaging have revealed how localized cortical activity may be associated with behavioral responses during early human development and the impaired neural substrates in behavioral and cognitive dysfunction observed in child psychosomatic or psychiatric disorders. Over the past 20 years, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technology has also greatly enhanced our understanding of developmental cognitive function in working memory and attention [3–5], and has revealed aberrant neural activation in adults with cognitive dysfunction such as depression, schizophrenia, and eating disorders [6, 7]. This functional neuroimaging technique has also been applied to the understanding of developmental specialization for human voice processing, which plays a fundamental role in social communication. Dehaene-Lamberts et al.  discovered that when infants listen to speech in their native language, activation was not distributed widely, but was already concentrated to a set of left-hemispheric perisylvian regions, similar to the situation in human adults. In addition, the brain networks involved in processing non-speech human vocalizations, such as music, and emotionally stimulated vocalization, such as mother's voice, have also been studied using fMRI in early infant brain [9, 10].
Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) provides a new direction for developmental cognitive neuroscience research. The application of fMRI to infants is restricted to periods of sleep; however NIRS, a completely noninvasive neuroimaging technique, can be applied in the natural setting in children of any age, even whilst awake. This means that visual stimulation, such as viewing an emotional face, can be applied as a cognitive task while the subject is conscious. While there have been several recent reviews on functional NIRS for developmental cognitive neuroscience studies in adult neuropsychiatric disorders [11–13], there have been far fewer on clinical research in children. Due to its portability, NIRS is now being applied in all age groups including children and to various fields of cognitive science. Herein we review the breadth of functional NIRS studies of children who have developed normally and of children with psychosomatic or behavioral disorders.
What is NIRS?
Compared to other neuroimaging techniques, NIRS has the advantages of complete noninvasiveness without requiring physical or mental restraints, a high temporal resolution of 0.1 s, and portable apparatus. Thus, it is suitable for imaging studies on children including newborns and infants, and can achieve detailed measurements of rapid changes in cerebral oxygenation during a task under natural conditions. NIRS has been mostly applied to the investigation of infant developmental cognitive function and perceptions including language, visual, olfactory, and auditory function and developmental changes of cerebral asymmetry associated with speech acquisition [19–23]. NIRS is also widely applicable for the investigation of infant-adult social interactions in infants [23–27]. Recently, psychiatric applications of NIRS to investigate frontal lobe function were reported in patients with depression, schizophrenia, and Alzheimer's disease [11, 28]. The validity of NIRS for use in children is well established from previous studies into the developmental effects of child entertainment, psychiatric, and behavioral disorders [29–33]. The disadvantages of NIRS are 1) its low spatial resolution (20 mm), which makes it unsuitable for investigating the deeper parts of the brain, 2) NIRS measures hemoglobin concentration not only in the brain but also in other surface structures, such as the skin and skull, 3) the NIRS signal only reflects relative hemoglobin changes, not absolute values, and 4) there is no capacity for measuring brain structure for anatomical reference.
When do infants recognize their mother's voice and face?
Functional NIRS studies have been applied to investigating early developmental cognitive function in newborns and infants. Indeed, reports on NIRS used to assess visual and auditory function in infants have increased in frequency recently. In particular, pediatricians are interested in the key developmental phase when infants clearly recognize their mother's face and voice. According to Pena's NIRS study , neonates showed larger neural activation in the left temporal area in response to forward speech than to backward speech and silence. They concluded that neonates are born with left hemisphere superiority to process specific properties of speech. Another NIRS study showed that frontal hemodynamic responses in infants during infant-directed speech (mother speaking to her baby slowly and with high pitch) by their own mothers were more activated than during speech by unfamiliar mothers . This effect was significantly larger in infants aged 7-9 months compared to infants of other ages.
Similarly, the use of NIRS to investigate visual perception in infants is an increasing research area; specifically those stages when infants recognize and differentiate facial expressions such as happy and angry, frontal and profile views of faces, and upright and inverted faces. Based on characteristic time-course hemodynamic changes by NIRS recording, these visual perceptions in infants are acquired by 5-10 months of age [24–27]. Lloyd-Fox et al.  reported that infants as young as 5 months of age already have a specialized area in the bilateral temporal cortex for processing social dynamic stimuli and that this area was not activated by nonsocial dynamic stimuli. Further, presentation of a positive emotion on their mother's face evoked larger hemodynamic changes in the orbitofrontal cortex of infants, suggesting that these areas are important in the attachment process .
Similar NIRS studies have also been carried out in preschool children. Hoshi et al.  developed an NIRS apparatus combining a wireless telemetry system and a portable imaging system, and showed different hemodynamic patterns under various emotions, such as startled, anticipation, pleasant, and unpleasant, in 4- to 6-year-old preschool children. NIRS is thus a promising neuroimaging technique for understanding developmental cognitive function and interrogating infant-adult social interactions in early childhood.
Are video games harmful for child brain development?
Much interest has been focused on the effects of video game playing on brain development and the development of cognitive ability in children. Many parents have expressed concerns about the amount of time their children spend on video games and about the relationship between this activity and adverse behavior. Such games have also been associated with many adverse effects, such as photosensitive epilepsy, enuresis, encopresis, visual injuries, obesity, tendonitis, hand-arm vibration syndrome, and enhancement of allergic responses [35–38]. Additionally, many studies have investigated the influences of video games on aggressive behavior in children . On the other hand, familiarity with a wide range of video games can help reciprocal conversation ability in children, which may enhance sociability . In particular, "electronic friendship" is often required among boys. Despite the great popularity of video games, there have been only a few studies examining the biological effects of video games on brain activity.
Further prospective NIRS studies during video game tasks may reveal an age effect with respect to reduced hemoglobin concentration in the prefrontal area. Such studies in groups of different aged children could provide a hint as to the optimal usage of video games in childhood.
Attachment perception overcomes body image in childhood anorexia nervosa
Anorexia nervosa (AN), which commonly occurs during adolescence in girls, is a disturbance of eating habits characterized by excessive preoccupation with body weight, shape, and food intake . AN has also been reported in children, especially in the prepubertal age group. The risk of developing and preserving the symptoms of AN seems to be multifactorial, with individual, familial, sociocultural, and biological factors interacting within the developmental framework.
NIRS studies have been used to investigate cognitive patterns in AN. Uehara et al.  reported lower activation and a gradual increases in oxy-Hb and decreased deoxy-Hb concentrations in the prefrontal cortex during word-fluency tasks in adult AN subjects. These authors suggested that specific patterns of changes in oxygenation might indicate less supply and less demand for cerebral blood volume during cognitive tasks in AN. The clinical symptoms of AN, such as dieting tendency and eating behavior problems, showed negative correlations with regional hemodynamic changes in the frontotemporal and orbitofrontal cortex, respectively . We also identified hemodynamic changes by NIRS during the word fluency task in children with AN (mean age, 14.2 years) . The children with AN were consistently characterized by an unchanged or less fluctuating response pattern of total-, oxy-, and deoxy-Hb concentrations during the task and rest periods. On the other hand, the total- and oxy-Hb concentrations immediately increased and the deoxy-Hb concentration immediately decreased after the beginning of the task and gradually reached the baseline level after the end of the task in the control group. These different prefrontal hemodynamic responses might indicate that AN subjects apply fewer brain circuits or fewer neurons per circuit during cognitive tasks and might use different brain circuits in relation to their preoccupation with eating behaviors.
The restless child: NIRS research on ADHD
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most frequent neuropsychiatric disorder in children, and its incidence has increased in recent years. The estimated prevalence of ADHD is 3-7% . Difficulty concentrating, hyperactivity, irritability, and impulsivity are the primary symptoms in children with ADHD, which may cause impairments in school performance, peer relationships, and self-esteem. In comparison with other imaging methods such as functional MRI, positron emission tomography, and single photon emission computed tomography, NIRS is relatively insensitive to movement artifacts and its inspection time is considerably short. Thus, even a restless child can successfully undergo imaging by NIRS.
Functional and anatomical alternations have been reported in the frontal cortex of adults with ADHD. Negoro et al.  thus investigated prefrontal hemodynamic responses in children with ADHD (mean age, 9.6 years) using the Stroop color-word task, a classical measure of frontal lobe function. The oxy-Hb changes in children with ADHD were significantly smaller in the bilateral inferior lateral frontal cortex than were those of the control group during the task. Jordan Moser et al.  also reported increased deoxy-Hb just after stimulation onset and delayed oxy-Hb increases in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in children with ADHD using the Stroop task, indicating higher oxygen consumption and higher brain activation in that area during the task. Future NIRS studies could evaluate the effects of medications used to treat the ADHD symptoms based on hemodynamic response patterns.
NIRS application for adult psychosomatic symptoms
Several research groups have reported on the usefulness of NIRS in investigating the association between frontal lobe dysfunction and social functioning in psychiatric disorders such as depression and schizophrenia. Suto et al.  demonstrated changes in the disease-specific pattern of prefrontal oxy-Hb during word fluency tasks in patients with these disorders. The depression group was characterized by a smaller oxy-Hb increase during the first half of the task period, and the schizophrenic group showed a small trough of oxy-Hb at the start of the task period and an oxy-Hb re-increase following the task period. Reduced activation in prefrontal oxygenation was also associated with lower self-assessment of social functioning.
NIRS has also been applied in psychosomatic medicine to evaluate mental stress-induced prefrontal cortex activity and its relationship with sympathetic nerve and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) functioning under mental stress task conditions. Specifically, Tanida et al.  evaluated the relationship between skin condition and left/right asymmetry in the prefrontal cortex activity during mental stress tasks using NIRS. Subjects who exhibited right-dominant prefrontal cortex activity during mental stress tasks had higher levels of sebum secretion in the facial skin, suggesting that such subjects are sensitive to mental stress associated with hyperactivity of the HPA axis. They also reported improvement in the unilateral dominancy of stress-induced prefrontal cortex activity with reduced sebum secretion by exposure to fragrances .
Future prospects of NIRS application for psychosomatic disorders are promising. As biological evaluation of cognitive and autonomic nerve functions demonstrates the benefits of understanding the degree of psychosomatic symptoms and determining therapeutic efficacy, NIRS is rapidly becoming a valuable tool for psychometric measurement.
This review demonstrates recent NIRS studies on children in the field of developmental cognitive neuroscience. NIRS enables us to effectively and noninvasively investigate developmental acquisition of an infant's visual and auditory function and child-mother attachment level. In particular, the difference in the hemodynamic effect of playing video games between children and adults was assessed, based on the popularity of this task in the preferred activities of children. The application of NIRS has also been extended to investigating cognitive dysfunction in child behavioral and psychiatric disorders such as ADHD and AN. NIRS shows promise for assessing the cognitive function of children and adults with psychosomatic disorders and is expected to be more widely used in the near future.
The design of our study and the procedures for obtaining informed consent were based on the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki, and approved by the Medical Ethics Committee of Kurume University School of Medicine. Informed consent was obtained from each child and his/her parents prior to the study.
This study was supported by grants from Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology (# 22591143) of Japan and in part by an Intramural Research Grant (22-6; Clinical Research for Diagnostic and Therapeutic Innovations in Developmental Disorders) for Neurological and Psychiatric Disorders of NCNP.
- Oki J, Eto T, Yamagata Z: Survey of neurosis and psychosomatic diseases among children in hospitals and schools in Japan. Jpn J Pediatr Soc. 2001, 105: 1317-1323. in Japanese
- The Japanese Society of Psychosomatic Pediatrics: The Clinical Guidelines on Psychosomatic Diseases in Childhood by The Japanese Society of Psychosomatic Pediatrics (in Japanese). 2009, Tokyo: Nankoudo Press
- Kim H: Neural activity that predicts subsequent memory and forgetting: a meta-analysis of 74 fMRI studies. NeuroImage. 2011, 54: 2446-2461. 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2010.09.045.View ArticlePubMed
- Crone EA, Wendelken C, Donohue S, van Leijenhorst L, Bunge SA: Neurocognitive development of the ability to manipulate information in working memory. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2006, 103: 9315-9320. 10.1073/pnas.0510088103.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Rubia K, Smith AB, Woolley J, Nosarti C, Heyman I, Taylor E, Brammer M: Progressive increase of frontostriatal brain activation from childhood to adulthood during event-related tasks of cognitive control. Hum Brain Mapp. 2006, 27: 973-993. 10.1002/hbm.20237.View ArticlePubMed
- Holmes AJ, MacDonald A, Carter CS, Barch DM, Andrew Stenger V, Cohen JD: Prefrontal functioning during context processing in schizophrenia and major depression: an event-related fMRI study. Schizophr Res. 2005, 76: 199-206. 10.1016/j.schres.2005.01.021.View ArticlePubMed
- Zastrow A, Kaiser S, Stippich C, Walther S, Herzog W, Tchanturia K, Belger A, Weisbrod M, Treasure J, Friederich HC: Neural correlates of impaired cognitive-behavioral flexibility in anorexia nervosa. Am J Psychiatry. 2009, 166: 608-616. 10.1176/appi.ajp.2008.08050775.View ArticlePubMed
- Dehaene-Lambertz G, Dehaene S, Hertz-Pannier L: Functional neuroimaging of speech perception in infants. Science. 2002, 298: 2013-2015. 10.1126/science.1077066.View ArticlePubMed
- Dehaene-Lambertz G, Montavont A, Jobert A, Allirol L, Dubois J, Hertz-Pannier L, Dehaene S: Language or music, mother or Mozart? Structural and environmental influences on infants' language networks. Brain Lang. 2010, 114: 53-65. 10.1016/j.bandl.2009.09.003.View ArticlePubMed
- Blasi A, Mercure E, Lloyd-Fox S, Thomson A, Brammer M, Sauter D, Deeley Q, Barker GJ, Renvall V, Deoni S, Gasston D, Williams SC, Johnson MH, Simmons A, Murphy DG: Early specialization for voice and emotion processing in the infant brain. Curr Biol. 2011, 21: 1220-1224. 10.1016/j.cub.2011.06.009.View ArticlePubMed
- Suto T, Fukuda M, Ito M, Uehara T, Mikuni M: Multichannel near-infrared spectroscopy in depression and schizophrenia: cognitive brain activation study. Biol Psychiatry. 2004, 55: 501-511. 10.1016/j.biopsych.2003.09.008.View ArticlePubMed
- Uehara T, Fukuda M, Suda M, Ito M, Suto T, Kameyama M, Yamagishi Y, Mikuni M: Cerebral blood volume changes in patients with eating disorders during word fluency: a preliminary study using multi-channel near infrared spectroscopy. Eat Weight Disord. 2007, 12: 183-190.View ArticlePubMed
- Kameyama M, Fukuda M, Yamagishi Y, Sato T, Uehara T, Ito M, Suto T, Mikuni M: Frontal lobe function in bipolar disorder: a multichannel near-infrared spectroscopy study. NeuroImage. 2006, 29: 172-184. 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2005.07.025.View ArticlePubMed
- Lloyd-Fox S, Blasi A, Elwell CE: Illuminating the developing brain: the past, present and future of functional near infrared spectroscopy. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2010, 34: 269-284. 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2009.07.008.View ArticlePubMed
- Minagawa-Kawai Y, Mori K, Hebden JC, Dupoux E: Optical imaging of infants' neurocognitive development: recent advances and perspectives. Dev Neurobiol. 2008, 68: 712-728. 10.1002/dneu.20618.View ArticlePubMed
- Aslin RN, Mehler J: Near-infrared spectroscopy for functional studies of brain activity in human infants: promise, prospects, and challenges. J Biomed Op. 2005, 10: 11009-10.1117/1.1854672.View Article
- Hoshi Y: Functional near-infrared spectroscopy: current status and future prospects. J Biomed Opt. 2007, 12: 062106-10.1117/1.2804911.View ArticlePubMed
- Fox PT, Raichle ME: Focal physiological uncoupling of cerebral blood flow and oxidative metabolism during somatosensory stimulation in human subjects. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1986, 83: 1140-1144. 10.1073/pnas.83.4.1140.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Peña M, Maki A, Kovacić D, Dehaene-Lambertz G, Koizumi H, Bouquet F, Mehler J: Sounds and silence: an optical topography study of language recognition at birth. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2003, 100: 11702-11705. 10.1073/pnas.1934290100.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Kobayashi E, Kusaka T, Karaki M, Kobayashi R, Itoh S, Mori N: Functional optical hemodynamic imaging of the olfactory cortex. Laryngoscope. 2007, 117: 541-546. 10.1097/MLG.0b013e31802ffe2a.View ArticlePubMed
- Kusaka T, Kawada K, Okubo K, Nagano K, Namba M, Okada H, Imai T, Isobe K, Itoh S: Noninvasive optical imaging in the visual cortex in young infants. Hum Brain Mapp. 2004, 22: 122-132. 10.1002/hbm.20020.View ArticlePubMed
- Lloyd-Fox S, Blasi A, Volein A, Everdell N, Elwell CE, Johnson MH: Social perception in infancy: a near infrared spectroscopy study. Child Dev. 2009, 80: 986-999. 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2009.01312.x.View ArticlePubMed
- Naoi N, Minagawa-Kawai Y, Kobayashi A, Takeuchi K, Nakamura K, Yamamoto JI, Kojima S: Cerebral responses to infant-directed speech and the effect of talker familiarity. NeuroImage. 2012, 59: 1735-1744. 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2011.07.093.View ArticlePubMed
- Nakato E, Otsuka Y, Kanazawa S, Yamaguchi MK, Watanabe S, Kakigi R: When do infants differentiate profile face from frontal face? A near-infrared spectroscopic study. Hum Brain Mapp. 2009, 30: 462-472. 10.1002/hbm.20516.View ArticlePubMed
- Nakato E, Otsuka Y, Kanazawa S, Yamaguchi MK, Kakigi R: Distinct differences in the pattern of hemodynamic response to happy and angry facial expressions in infants-a near-infrared spectroscopic study. NeuroImage. 2011, 54: 1600-1606. 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2010.09.021.View ArticlePubMed
- Otsuka Y, Nakato E, Kanazawa S, Yamaguchi MK, Watanabe S, Kakigi R: Neural activation to upright and inverted faces in infants measured by near infrared spectroscopy. NeuroImage. 2007, 34: 399-406. 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2006.08.013.View ArticlePubMed
- Minagawa-Kawai Y, Matsuoka S, Dan I, Naoi N, Nakamura K, Kojima S: Prefrontal activation associated with social attachment: facial-emotion recognition in mothers and infants. Cereb Cortex. 2009, 19: 284-292.View ArticlePubMed
- Herrmann MJ, Langer JB, Jacob C, Ehlis AC, Fallgatter AJ: Reduced prefrontal oxygenation in Alzheimer disease during verbal fluency tasks. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2008, 16: 125-135. 10.1097/JGP.0b013e3180cc1fbc.View ArticlePubMed
- Nagamitsu S, Nagano M, Yamashita Y, Takashima S, Matsuishi T: Prefrontal cerebral blood volume patterns while playing video games-a near-infrared spectroscopy study. Brain Dev. 2006, 28: 315-321. 10.1016/j.braindev.2005.11.008.View ArticlePubMed
- Matsuda G, Hiraki K: Sustained decrease in oxygenated hemoglobin during video games in the dorsal prefrontal cortex: a NIRS study of children. NeuroImage. 2006, 29: 706-711. 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2005.08.019.View ArticlePubMed
- Nagamitsu S, Araki Y, Ioji T, Yamashita F, Ozono S, Kouno M, Iizuka C, Hara M, Shibuya I, Ohya T, Yamashita Y, Tsuda A, Kakuma T, Matsuishi T: Prefrontal brain function in children with anorexia nervosa: a near-infrared spectroscopy study. Brain Dev. 2011, 33: 35-44. 10.1016/j.braindev.2009.12.010.View ArticlePubMed
- Nagamitsu S, Yamashita F, Araki Y, Iizuka C, Ozono S, Komatsu H, Ohya T, Yamashita Y, Kakuma T, Tsuda A, Matsuishi T: Characteristic prefrontal blood volume patterns when imaging body type, high-calorie food, and mother-child attachment in childhood anorexia nervosa: a near infrared spectroscopy study. Brain Dev. 2010, 32: 162-167. 10.1016/j.braindev.2009.01.002.View ArticlePubMed
- Negoro H, Sawada M, Iida J, Ota T, Tanaka S, Kishimoto T: Prefrontal dysfunction in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder as measured by near-infrared spectroscopy. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev. 2010, 41: 193-203. 10.1007/s10578-009-0160-y.View ArticlePubMed
- Hoshi Y, Chen SJ: Regional cerebral blood flow changes associated with emotions in children. Pediatr Neurol. 2002, 27: 275-281. 10.1016/S0887-8994(02)00432-0.View ArticlePubMed
- American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Public Education: Media violence. Pediatrics. 2001, 108: 1222-1226.View Article
- Cleary AG, McKendrick H, Sills JA: Hand-arm vibration syndrome may be associated with prolonged use of vibrating computer games. BMJ. 2002, 324: 301-10.1136/bmj.324.7332.301.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Griffiths MD: Playing video games seems to have few serious acute adverse effects on health. BMJ. 2002, 324: 1159-10.1136/bmj.324.7346.1159.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Kimata H: Enhancement of allergic skin wheal responses in patients with atopic eczema/dermatitis syndrome by playing video games or by a frequently ringing mobile phone. Eur J Clin Invest. 2003, 33: 513-517. 10.1046/j.1365-2362.2003.01177.x.View ArticlePubMed
- Wiegman O, van Schie E: Video game playing and its relations with aggressive and prosocial behaviour. Br J Soc Psychol. 1998, 37: 367-378. 10.1111/j.2044-8309.1998.tb01177.x.View ArticlePubMed
- Colwell J, Payne J: Negative correlates of computer game play in adolescents. Br J Psychol. 2000, 91: 295-310. 10.1348/000712600161844.View ArticlePubMed
- Fairburn CG, Harrison PJ: Eating disorders. Lancet. 2003, 361: 407-416. 10.1016/S0140-6736(03)12378-1.View ArticlePubMed
- Suda M, Uehara T, Fukuda M, Sato T, Kameyama M, Mikuni M: Dieting tendency and eating behavior problems in eating disorder correlate with right frontotemporal and left orbitofrontal cortex: a near-infrared spectroscopy study. J Psychiatr Res. 2010, 44: 547-555. 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2009.11.005.View ArticlePubMed
- O'Kearney R: Attachment disruption in anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa: a review of theory and empirical research. Int J Eat Disord. 1996, 20: 115-127. 10.1002/(SICI)1098-108X(199609)20:2<115::AID-EAT1>3.0.CO;2-J.View ArticlePubMed
- Polanczyk G, de Lima MS, Horta BL, Biederman J, Rohde LA: The worldwide prevalence of ADHD: a systematic review and metaregression analysis. Am J Psychiatry. 2007, 164: 942-948. 10.1176/appi.ajp.164.6.942.View ArticlePubMed
- Jourdan Moser S, Cutini S, Weber P, Schroeter ML: Right prefrontal brain activation due to Stroop interference is altered in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder--a functional near-infrared spectroscopy study. Psychiatry Res. 2009, 173: 190-195. 10.1016/j.pscychresns.2008.10.003.View ArticlePubMed
- Tanida M, Katsuyama M, Sakatani K: Relation between mental stress-induced prefrontal cortex activity and skin conditions: a near-infrared spectroscopy study. Brain Res. 2007, 1184: 210-216.View ArticlePubMed
- Tanida M, Katsuyama M, Sakatani K: Effects of fragrance administration on stress-induced prefrontal cortex activity and sebum secretion in the facial skin. Neurosci Lett. 2008, 432: 157-161. 10.1016/j.neulet.2007.12.014.View ArticlePubMed