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Table 4 Multivariate analysis of significant background factors for strong awareness of constipation

From: Background factors involved in the epidemiology of functional constipation in the Japanese population: a cross-sectional study

Items univariate multivariate
Odds 95% CI P value* Odds 95% CI P value*
Age 1.002 0.996 1.007 0.558     
Sex (female), % 0.581 0.502 0.672 < 0.001** 0.729 0.614 0.867 < 0.001**
BMI 0.970 0.950 0.990 0.004**     
Jobs and education
 Office worker 0.986 0.854 1.140 0.853     
 Retired or unemployed 0.726 0.588 0.895 0.003**     
 Homemaker 1.323 1.085 1.612 0.006**     
 Bachelor’s degree or over 0.730 0.631 0.844 < 0.001** 0.849 0.721 1.000 0.050**
Past history of disease
 Hypertension 0.794 0.646 0.976 0.029** 0.692 0.545 0.878 0.003**
 Diabetes 1.083 0.812 1.444 0.589     
 Dyslipidemia 0.994 0.810 1.219 0.952     
 Anemia 1.141 0.985 1.321 0.078     
Rome III criteria question items
 Improvement with defecation 0.989 0.845 1.159 0.894     
 Onset associated with a change in frequency of stool 0.980 0.847 1.134 0.784     
 Onset associated with a change in form or appearance of stool 0.871 0.753 1.007 0.062 0.783 0.664 0.924 0.004**
 Straining during at least 25% of defecation 1.485 1.270 1.736 < 0.001**     
 Lumpy or hard stool at least 25% of defecations 1.450 1.324 1.790 < 0.001**     
 Sensation of incomplete evacuation for at least 25% of defecation 1.967 1.676 2.308 < 0.001** 1.457 1.202 1.790 0.001**
 Sensation of hard evacuation 1.831 1.536 2.182 < 0.001** 1.301 1.022 1.654 0.033**
 Manual maneuvers to facilitate digital evacuation for at least 25% of defecation 1.759 1.276 2.435 < 0.001**     
 Manual maneuvers to facilitate support of the pelvic floor for at least 25% of defecation 1.786 1.438 2.220 < 0.001**     
 Loose stools rarely occurring without the use of laxatives 4.516 3.852 5.295 < 0.001** 4.070 3.439 4.817 < 0.001**
 Bristol stool type 4 0.398 0.333 0.476 < 0.001** 0.549 0.450 0.671 < 0.001**
Source of laxative
 History of laxative use 2.887 2.483 3.358 < 0.001**     
 By prescription 1.572 1.329 1.859 < 0.001**     
 Pharmacy 1.375 1.189 1.590 < 0.001**     
 Online 1.561 1.210 2.013 < 0.001**     
Acceptable laxative cost
 More than 1000 yen 2.083 1.762 2.482 < 0.001**     
  1. *The level of significance is set at P < 0.05
  2. **Significant difference between groups