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Table 1 Univariate analysis of participant characteristics in the functional constipation (FC) and non-FC groups, presented as the frequency or mean ± standard deviation (SD)

From: Background factors involved in the epidemiology of functional constipation in the Japanese population: a cross-sectional study

Items FC (n = 262) Non-FC (n = 2738) P value*
Residential area: North (Tohoku, Hokkaido)/East (Kanto, Tokai, Koshinetsu)/West (Kinki, Chugoku, Shikoku, Kyushu), n/n/n 33/128/101 298/1483/959 0.250
Age, years (mean ± SD) 49.8 ± 13.1 45.8 ± 13.3 < 0.001**
Sex, female, n (%) 189 (72.1) 1308 (47.8) < 0.001**
BMI, kg/m2 (mean ± SD) 21.0 ± 3.3 21.7 ± 3.6 0.002**
Jobs and education
 Employment status, n (%) Student 10 (3.8%) 34 (1.2%) 0.360
Office worker 103 (39.3%) 1266 (46.2%) 0.030**
Self-employed 21 (8.0%) 216 (7.9%) 0.900
Part-time worker 36 (13.7%) 389 (14.2%) 0.930
Retired or unemployed 29 (11.1%) 439 (16.0%) 0.030**
Homemaker 72 (27.5%) 394 (14.4%) < 0.001**
 Education, n (%) Junior high school or high school 129 (49.2%) 1218 (44.5%) 0.150
Bachelor’s degree or higher 132 (50.4%) 1506 (55.0%) 0.150
Past history of disease
 Hypertension, n (%) 25 (9.5%) 377 (13.8%) 0.060
 Type 2 diabetes mellitus, n (%) 3 (1.1%) 196 (7.2%) < 0.001**
 Hyperlipidemia, n (%) 25 (9.5%) 313 (11.4%) 0.410
 Lesion in the stomach, duodenum or small intestine, n (%) 0 291 (10.6%) NA
 Inflammatory bowel disease, n (%) 0 0
 Hemorrhoids, n (%) 0 395 (14.4%) NA
 Diverticulum, n (%) 0 35 (1.3%) NA
 Gastrointestinal cancer, n (%) 0 0
 Cerebrovascular disease, n (%) 0 60 (2.2%) NA
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, n (%) 0 5 (0.2%) NA
 Liver disease, n (%) 0 62 (2.3%) NA
 Kidney disease, n (%) 0 62 (2.3%) NA
 Abdominal surgery without appendectomy, n (%) 0 0
 Anemia, n (%) 36 (13.7%) 468 (17.1%) 0.190
Past treatment history
 Hypertensive drugs, n (%) 14 (5.3%) 276 (10.1%) 0.010**
 Insulin injections or Hyperglycemia drugs, n (%) 0 123 (4.5%) NA
 Hyperlipidemia drugs, n (%) 22 (8.4%) 264 (9.6%) 0.580
 Cerebrovascular disease, n (%) 0 80 (2.9%) NA
 Cardiovascular disease, n (%) 1 (0.4%) 81 (3.0%) 0.010**
 Chronic renal failure or history of dialysis, n (%) 0 26 (0.9%) NA
 Depression or anxiety, n (%) 0 314 (11.5%) NA
Lifestyle factors based on JHPI questionnaire
 Smoking more than 100 cigarettes per month and smoking for 6 month or longer, n (%) 41 (15.6%) 39 (1.4%) 0.580
 Alcohol drinking occasionally or daily, n (%) 156 (59.5%) 1046 (38.2%) 0.900
 Walking for 1 h/d, n (%) 100 (38.2%) 1027 (37.5%) 0.730
 Body weight gain of at least 10 kg, n (%) 45 (17.2%) 630 (23.0%) 0.036**
 Exercising for more than 30 min twice a week for at least 1 year, n (%) 57 (21.8%) 564 (20.6%) 0.630
 Walking or similar exercise for more than 1 h/d, n (%) 56 (21.4%) 567 (20.7%) 0.610
 Walking faster than other people of the same age, n (%) 97 (37.0%) 1038 (37.9%) 0.790
 Body weight gain or loss of at least 3 kg within 1 year, n (%) 86 (32.8%) 928 (33.9%) 0.780
 Eating faster than other people, n (%) 100 (38.2%) 1027 (37.5%) 0.730
 Having dinner within 2 h before going to sleep at least 3 times a week, n (%) 67 (25.6%) 794 (29.0%) 0.290
 Eating snacks after dinner at least 3 times a week, n (%) 83 (31.7%) 797 (29.1%) 0.390
 Skipping breakfast at least 3 times a week, n (%) 69 (26.3%) 715 (26.1%) 0.940
 Insufficient sleep, n (%) 144 (55.0%) 1588 (58.0%) 0.350
 Strong awareness of constipation, n (%) 71 (27.1%) 1171 (42.8%) < 0.001**
Rome III criteria question items
 Improvement with defecation, n (%) 194 (74.0%) 1933 (70.6%) 0.255
 Onset associated with a change in frequency of stool, n (%) 133 (50.8%) 1613 (58.9%) 0.013**
 Onset associated with a change in form (appearance) of stool, n (%) 137 (52.3%) 1577 (57.6%) 0.103
 Straining during at least 25% of defecation, n (%) 211 (80.5%) 1828 (66.8%) < 0.001**
 Lumpy or hard stool at least 25% of defecations, n (%) 210 (80.2%) 1682 (61.4%) < 0.001**
 Sensation of incomplete evacuation for at least 25% of defecation, n (%) 230 (87.8%) 1828 (66.8%) < 0.001**
 Sensation of hard evacuation, n (%) 255 (97.3%) 2036 (74.4%) < 0.001**
 Manual maneuvers to facilitate digital evacuation at least 25% of defecation, n (%) 18 (6.9%) 144 (5.3%) 0.254
 Manual maneuvers to facilitate support of the pelvic floor at least 25% of defecation, n (%) 62 (23.7%) 321 (11.7%) < 0.001**
 Loose stools are rarely present without the use of laxatives, n (%) 262 (100.0%) 843 (30.8%) < 0.001**
Quality of life (SF-8)
 GH (mean ± SD) 46.9 ± 7.5 46.1 ± 7.8 0.121
 PF (mean ± SD) 47.2 ± 9.5 46.9 ± 9.0 0.532
 RP§ (mean ± SD) 48.6 ± 7.1 47.9 ± 7.9 0.158
 BP (mean ± SD) 48.5 ± 8.3 48.3 ± 8.6 0.655
 VT†† (mean ± SD) 48.1 ± 7.4 46.5 ± 7.9 0.002**
 SF‡‡ (mean ± SD) 47.9 ± 9.1 45.9 ± 10.2 0.002**
 MH§§ (mean ± SD) 48.9 ± 7.7 47.2 ± 8.3 0.001**
 RE¶¶ (mean ± SD) 45.0 ± 10.5 43.1 ± 10.9 0.010**
 PCS††† (mean ± SD) 46.9 ± 7.1 46.9 ± 7.5 0.966
 MCS‡‡‡ (mean ± SD) 46.7 ± 8.3 44.4 ± 9.2 < 0.001**
  1. *The level of significance is set at P < 0.05
  2. **Significant difference between groups
  3. GH general health, PF physical functioning, §RP role physical, BP body pain, ††VT vitality, ‡‡SF social functioning, §§MH mental health, ¶¶RE role emotional, †††PCS physical component summary, ‡‡‡MCS mental component summary