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Table 3 Gut microbial composition of patients with anorexia nervosa (AN)

From: Possible role of the gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of anorexia nervosa

Characteristics of AN participants Methods Main findings 1Country 2Year 3Ref
AN (n = 9, age 19–36 years, 4BMI 12.73 ± 1.6) 5PCR Methanobrevibacter smithii concentration was higher in AN patients than in lean control. France 2009 [45]
AN (n = 14, age 27.3 ± 10.8, BMI median 13.5) PCR Firmicutes, Bacteridetes, Methanobrevibacter smithii, and E. coli were found in 98.5, 67, 64 and 51% of the participants, respectively. France 2013 [52]
AN (n = 16, Age 28 ± 11.7 years, BMI 16.2 ± 1.5) 616S rseq Alpha diversity was lower in AN patients than in healthy controls. At genus level, Anaerostipes and Faecalibacterium were reduced versus a healthy comparison group. USA 2015 [46]
7ANR (n = 14, Age 28.1 ± 10.7 years, BMI 12.7 ± 1.5), 8ANBP (n = 11, Age 32.5 ± 9.4 years, BMI 13 ± 1.2) PCR Amounts of Clostridium coccoides group, Clostridium leptum subgroup, Bacteroides fragilis and Streptococcus were lower in AN patients than in healthy controls. Japan 2015 [48]
AN (n = 55, Age 23.8 ± 6.8 years, BMI 15.3 ± 1.4) 16S rseq The ratio of mucin-degrading bacteria to Clostridium cluster I, XI, and XVIII was increased, while the butyric acid-producing genus Roseburia was decreased, relative to controls. Germany 2016 [47]
AN (n = 15, BMI 13.9 ± 2.1) 16S rseq Enterobacteriaceae and Methanobrevibacter smithii levels were increased compared with healthy controls; while, the genera Roseburia, Ruminococcus and Clostridium, were depleted. Italy 2017 [53]
AN (n = 18, Age 22.4 ± 3.2 years, BMI 15.3 ± 1.3) 16S rseq Only Coriobacteriaceaeone levels were significantly enriched in AN compared to other groups. Austria 2017 [54]
AN (n = 17, Age 21.8 ± 3.6 years, BMI 15.2 ± 1.3) 16S rseq Ruminococcaceae and Faecalibacterium were increased in a low-zonulin population. No specific comments about AN. Austria 2018 [55]
AN (n = 33, Age: 32 ± 12, BMI 11.7 ± 1.5) 16S rseq Klebsiella and Salmonella levels were more abundant in AN patients whereas Eubacterium and Roseburia were significantly less abundant in patients than controls. France 2019 [56]
ANR (n = 10, Age 25 ± 2.8 years, BMI 13.3 ± 0.3) 16S rseq A lower relative abundance of phylum Bacteroidetes was observed in AN in comparison to age-matched healthy women. Japan 2019 [51]
  1. 1Country, where each study was conducted; 2year, when each study was reported; 3ref, references number; 4BMI, body-mass index; 5PCR, polymerase chain reaction using targeted-bacteria specific primers; 616S rseq, 16S rRNA sequencing analysis; 7ANR, AN restricting-type; 8ANBP, AN binge-purging type