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Table 3 Characteristics of the studies included in the systematic review

From: A systematic review of the effect of sleep interventions on presenteeism

Study Age Sex Country Job type Design Intervention Duration Program components
Bostock et al. (2016) [16] CBT-I
33.9 ± 6.41 years
WLC
33.3 ± 5.59 years
All
33.6 ± 6.01 years
CBT-I
Men: 88
Women: 47
WLC
Men: 92
Women: 43
United States Office-based staff RCT (vs. WLC) CBT-I (digital cognitive behavioral therapy: Sleepio) 6 weeks
(6 sessions)
Sleep restriction, stimulus control, relaxation, paradoxical intention, belief restructuring, mindfulness
Espie et al. (2018) [11] 50.0 ± 11.14 years Men: 147
Women: 67
United States Office
Plant
Retail & service
Single arm CBT-I (digital cognitive behavioral therapy:
Sleepio)
6 weeks
(6 sessions)
Sleep restriction, stimulus control, relaxation, paradoxical intention, belief restructuring, mindfulness
Behrendt et al. (2020) [29] CBT-I
46.1 ± 9.5 years
WLC
46.7 ± 9.7 years
All
46.5 ± 9.8 years
CBT-I
Men: 29
Women: 59
WLC
Men: 32
Women: 57
German Diverse job categories recruited via media RCT (vs. WLC) Internet-delivered CBT-I 6 weeks
(6 sessions)
Psychoeducation, sleep hygiene, sleep restriction, stimulus control, relaxation, metacognitive therapy, potential future application
Burton et al. (2016) [17] 20–35 years: 78
36–50 years: 163
≥51 years: 116
Men: 86
Women: 271
United States Financial service Single arm Sleep hygiene education 5 months Psychoeducation, sleep hygiene, identification of sleep disorders and information on the sleep disorders, relaxation, mindfulness
Wolever et al. (2012) [30] Yoga: 41.6 ± 10.1 years
Mindfulness: 44.3 ± 9.4 years
WLC
42.7 ± 9.7 years
Yoga
Men: 24
Women: 66
Mindfulness
Men: 22
Women: 74
WLC
Men: 10
Women: 43
United States Insurance RCT (vs. WLC) Yoga or mindfulness Yoga: 12 weeks (12 h)
Mindfulness: 12 weeks (14 h)
Yoga
Yoga poses, breathing techniques, relaxation, mental techniques
Mindfulness
Mindfulness meditation
Morgan et al. (2012) [31] Intervention 44.8 ± 8.3 years
WLC
43.7 ± 9.1 years
All
44.4 ± 8.6 years
Only men (N = 110) Australia Aluminum smelter RCT (vs. WLC) The workplace power program 14 weeks Education for weight loss, weekly weight reports, daily diet, and exercise with a pedometer
Mills et al. (2007) [32] N/A N/A United Kingdom Call-handler Control trail
(2900 K)
Changing the color temperature of fluorescent lights in the workplace 14 weeks 17,000 K vs. 2900 K
  1. CBT-I Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia, WLC Waiting list control, RCT Randomized control trial, N/A Not applicable