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Table 6 Adverse events experienced by participants with chronic diseases during yoga practice

From: Health-related benefits and adverse events associated with yoga classes among participants that are healthy, in poor health, or with chronic diseases

Systems Symptoms Hypertension Low back pain Depression Autonomic dysfunction Climacteric disorder Cancer Bronchial asthma Diabetes mellitus
First Last First Last First Last First Last First Last First Last First Last First Last
Eyes and ears Blackout 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
Pruritus of the eye 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
Tinnitus 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Respiratory Coughing 0 3 2 1 0 1 0 2 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0
Congested nose 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0
Runny nose 1 0 2 1 1 0 1 0 2 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
Sputum production 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
Cardiovascular Chest pain 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Palpitation 0 0 0 0 1 1 2 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Breathlessness 0 0 2 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Gastrointestinal Nausea 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
Epigastric & abdominal pain 0 2 1 1 2 0 1 0 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 0
Diarrhea 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Musculoskeletal Joint pain 4 4 2 4 1 2 0 2 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
Muscular pain 2 6 1 2 2 2 1 3 1 1 0 3 0 0 1 0
Skin Flushing of the face 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
Excessive perspiration 3 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1
Pruritus of the skin 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Neurological Headache 1 1 0 3 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0
Heaviness of the head 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Feeling of hot and cold 1 1 1 0 2 0 3 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
Faintness (daze) 2 4 1 3 2 1 1 2 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0
Numbness of a certain body part 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Twitching in a certain body part 2 1 0 0 2 1 2 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0
Dizziness 2 2 2 1 3 0 3 0 1 1 1 0 2 3 0 0
Fatigue Feeling of exhaustion 2 2 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 2 0 0 0 0
Feeling sick 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Psychological Tension 2 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1
Confusion 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
Gloominess 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Urge to cry 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
Anxiety 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
Irritation 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Shaking of the body 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
Recollection of bad experience 1 0 1 1 1 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
Scary thoughts 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Frightened feeling 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Heightened emotion 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
The number of attendees who had some the above symptoms (%) 16 (34.0) 18 (38.3) 11 (39.3) 8 (28.6) 10 (71.4) 5 (35.7) 10 (76.9) 7 (53.8) 6 (46.2) 3 (23.1) 4 (40.0) 5 (50.0) 2 (22.2) 4 (44.4) 3 (50.0) 1 (16.7)
The number of valid responses 47 28 14 13 13 10 9 6
  1. Data from participants that had missing values were excluded from analysis. First: the first yoga class; Last: the last yoga class. Symptoms reported by more than 5.0% of participants in each group are shown in bold