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Table 4 Effect of changes in physical activity on optimal well-being

From: Associations between lifestyle behaviour changes and the optimal well-being of middle-aged Japanese individuals

A. Effect of changes in physical activity (over 30 min of intensive exercise more than twice/week) on WHO-5 scores in 2017
WHO-5 scores (raw score) n Mean SD p
Maintaining bad habits 1340 12.24 4.93  
Worsening 77 13.38 5.09  
Improving 126 13.57 5.04 p < 0.05
Maintaining good habits 239 14.62 4.85 p < 0.01
vs maintaining bad habits
B. Association between optimal well-being and changes in physical activity (over 30 min of intensive exercise more than twice/week)
  No. of participants with optimal WB/No. of participants Model 1 Model 2
OR 95% CI OR 95% CI
Maintaining bad habits 329/1340 1   1  
Worsening 27/77 1.56 0.96–2.55 1.31 0.77–2.22
Improving 36/126 1.18 0.78–1.78 1.00 0.64–1.55
Maintaining good habits 101/239 2.05 1.53–2.75 1.71 1.24–2.36
C. Effect of changes in physical activity (over one-hour walking/day) on WHO-5 scores in 2017
WHO-5 scores (raw score) n Mean SD p
Maintaining bad habits 772 12.28 4.91  
Worsening 230 12.77 5.11  
Improving 231 12.76 5.06  
Maintaining good habits 546 13.27 5.01 p < 0.05
vs maintaining bad habits
D. Association between optimal well-being and changes in physical activity (over one-hour walking/day)
Characteristic No. of participants with optimal WB/No. of participants Model 1 Model 2
OR 95% CI OR 95% CI
Maintaining bad habits 183/772 1   1  
Worsening 68/230 1.44 1.03–2.01 1.45 1.01–2.08
Improving 68/231 1.39 1.00–1.94 1.31 0.91–1.87
Maintaining good habits 174/546 1.53 1.19–1.96 1.46 1.12–1.91
  1. Model 1: adjusted for age, sex, and BMI; Model 2: adjusted for age, sex, BMI, and sleep quality
  2. OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval, WB well-being
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