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Table 3 Effect of changes in dietary habits on optimal well-being

From: Associations between lifestyle behaviour changes and the optimal well-being of middle-aged Japanese individuals

A. Effect of changes in dietary habits (dinner within 2 hours before sleep) on WHO-5 scores in 2017
WHO-5 scores (raw score) n Mean SD p
Maintaining bad habits 307 11.88 4.86  
Worsening 145 12.28 4.91  
Improving 166 12.77 4.99  
Maintaining good habits 1163 12.96 5.03 p < 0.01
vs maintaining bad habits
B. Association between optimal well-being and changes in dietary habits (dinner within 2 hours before sleep)
Characteristic No. of participants with optimal WB/No. of participants Model 1 Model 2
OR 95% CI OR 95% CI
Maintaining bad habits 66/307 1   1  
Worsening 30/145 0.94 0.58–1.54 0.91 0.54–1.54
Improving 50/166 1.59 1.03–2.45 1.58 0.99–2.52
Maintaining good habits 347/1163 1.52 1.12–2.07 1.36 0.98–1.89
C. Effect of changes in dietary habits (snacking after dinner over 3 times/week) on WHO-5 scores in 2017
WHO-5 scores (raw score) n Mean SD p
Maintaining bad habits 341 12.06 4.87  
Worsening 164 11.95 4.83  
Improving 175 12.58 4.66  
Maintaining good habits 1105 13.04 5.09 p < 0.01
vs maintaining bad habits
D. Association between optimal well-being and changes in dietary habits (snacking after dinner over 3 times/week)
  No. of participants with optimal WB/No. of participants Model 1 Model 2
OR 95% CI OR 95% CI
Maintaining bad habits 78/341 1   1  
Worsening 36/164 0.91 0.58–1.44 0.95 0.59–1.55
Improving 48/175 1.25 0.82–1.90 1.29 0.82–2.04
Maintaining good habits 333/1105 1.36 1.02–1.81 1.30 0.95–1.77
  1. Model 1: adjusted for age, sex, and BMI; Model 2: adjusted for age, sex, BMI, and sleep quality
  2. OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval, WB well-being