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Table 2 Association between optimal well-being and lifestyle behaviours

From: Associations between lifestyle behaviour changes and the optimal well-being of middle-aged Japanese individuals

Characteristic No. of participants with optimal WB/No. of participants Model 1 Model 2
OR 95% CI OR 95% CI
Length of lunch time
 < 10 min 97/426 1   1  
 10–20 min 432/1527 1.36 1.05–1.75 1.27 0.97–1.67
 > 20 minutes 102/323 1.63 1.17–2.28 1.47 1.03–2.11
Salty food preference
 More preferred 41/193 1   1  
 Moderate 449/1694 1.33 0.92–1.92 1.27 0.86–1.88
 Less preferred 146/395 2.03 1.35–3.05 2.10 1.35–3.25
Eating vegetables
 Never 13/70 1   1  
 Once/day 287/1286 1.29 0.69–2.39 1.07 0.56–2.08
 With every meal 331/916 2.48 1.33–4.61 1.89 0.97–6.67
Subjective eating speed
 Quick 236/810 1   1  
 Moderate 353/1287 0.94 0.77–1.15 0.83 0.67–1.03
 Slow 47/195 0.82 0.57–1.19 0.89 0.60–1.33
Dinner within 2 hours before sleep
 Yes 132/606 1   1  
 No 505/1687 1.51 1.21–1.89 1.32 1.04–1.67
Snacking after dinner over 3 times/week
 Yes 152/657 1   1  
 No 486/1638 1.33 1.07–1.65 1.27 1.01–1.60
Skipping breakfast over 3 days/week
 Yes 75/342 1   1  
 No 536/1953 1.36 1.02–1.79 1.23 0.91–1.66
Over 30 min of intensive exercise more than twice/week
 No 461/1851 1   1  
 Yes 175/442 1.82 1.45–2.27 1.58 1.24–2.01
Over one-hour walking/day
 No 326/1287 1   1  
 Yes 309/1002 1.32 1.10–1.59 1.29 1.06–1.58
Current smoking status
 Yes 86/345 1   1  
 No 552/1950 1.23 0.93–1.63 1.28 0.95–1.73
Alcohol consumption (ethanol conversion [g]/day)
 < 22 448/1623 1   1  
 22-43 115/417 0.93 0.72–1.19 0.83 0.64–1.09
 44-65 60/181 1.17 0.83–1.65 1.04 0.72–1.51
 > 66 12/66 0.54 0.29–1.04 0.54 0.27–1.07
  1. Model 1: adjusted for age, sex, and BMI; Model 2: adjusted for age, sex, BMI, and sleep quality
  2. OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval, WB well-being
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