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Table 1 Results of the differences between WHO-5 raw scores for each lifestyle behaviour

From: Associations between lifestyle behaviour changes and the optimal well-being of middle-aged Japanese individuals

Lifestyle behaviours n WHO-5 score p
Mean SD
Length of lunch time
 < 10 min 426 11.96 4.90  
 10–20 min 1527 12.80 4.90 < 0.01
 > 20 minutes 323 13.24 5.31 < 0.01
vs < 10 min
Salty food preference
 More preferred 193 11.75 4.93  
 Moderate 1694 12.55 4.90  
 Less preferred 395 13.89 5.09 < 0.01
vs more preferred and moderate
Eating vegetables
 With every meal 916 13.91 5.01 < 0.01
 Once/day 1286 11.98 4.75  
 Never 70 10.63 5.23  
vs once/day and never
Subjective eating speed
 Quick 810 12.73 5.06  
 Moderate 1287 12.77 4.91  
 Slow 195 12.31 5.00 Ns
Dinner within 2 hours before sleep
 Yes 606 12.02 4.83  
 No 1687 12.96 5.00 < 0.01
vs Yes
Snacking after dinner over 3 times/week
 Yes 657 12.10 4.83  
 No 1638 12.97 5.01 < 0.01
vs Yes
Skipping breakfast over 3 days/week
 Yes 342 11.58 5.23  
 No 1953 12.92 4.90 < 0.01
vs Yes
Over 30 min of intensive exercise more than twice per week
 Yes 442 14.47 4.83 < 0.01
 No 1851 12.29 4.91  
vs No
Over one-hour walking/day
 Yes 1002 13.09 4.95 < 0.01
 No 1287 12.42 4.97  
vs No
Current smoking status
 No 1950 12.88 4.87 < 0.01
 Yes 345 11.77 5.40  
vs Yes
Alcohol consumption (ethanol conversion [g]/day)
 < 22 1623 12.68 4.92  
 22-43 417 12.79 5.07  
 44-65 181 13.09 5.33  
 > 66 66 12.11 4.55 Ns
  1. Ns not significant