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Table 3 Associations between explanatory variables and depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress

From: Factors influencing post-ICU psychological distress in family members of critically ill patients: a linear mixed-effects model

  Depression (HADS-depression)a Anxiety (HADS-anxiety)a Posttraumatic stress (IED-R-6)a
Model term Estimate 95% CIb p-Value Estimate 95% CIb p-Value Estimate 95% CIb p-Value
(Intercept) 4.736 from 2.57 to 6.90 <  0.0001 7.095 from 4.89 to 9.31 <  0.0001 12.848 from 10.41 to 15.29 <  0.0001
Satisfaction with care (FS-ICU-24) −0.064 from −0.11 to − 0.02 0.01 − 0.063 from − 0.11 to − 0.02 0.01 − 0.054 from − 0.10 to − 0.00 0.037
Age of family member 0.024 from − 0.03 to 0.08 0.31 0.020 from − 0.03 to 0.07 0.40 0.015 from − 0.04 to 0.07 0.57
Female gender of family member −0.677 from −2.38 to 1.03 0.38 0.546 from −1.13 to 2.22 0.47 0.436 from − 1.53 to 2.40 0.62
Being the spouse or partner 0.058 from −2.38 to 2.49 0.96 0.335 from −2.13 to 2.80 0.76 −1.475 from −4.27 to 1.32 0.25
Co-habiting with critically ill person 1.533 from −0.77 to 3.83 0.16 0.152 from −2.19 to 2.50 0.88 1.276 from −1.33 to 3.88 0.29
Higher education level −0.183 from −1.60 to 1.24 0.77 −0.292 from −1.76 to 1.18 0.66 −0.799 from −2.40 to 0.80 0.28
Living closer to hospital 0.029 from −1.41 to 1.47 0.96 −0.457 from −1.96 to 1.04 0.50 −0.651 from −2.25 to 0.95 0.37
Family support service, yes 0.880 from −0.62 to 2.38 0.25 0.346 from −1.28 to 1.97 0.68 0.337 from −1.33 to 2.00 0.69
Time since ICU discharge > 4 weeks −0.895 from −2.30 to 0.50 0.17 −0.574 from −1.99 to 0.84 0.38 −0.645 from −2.23 to 0.94 0.37
Age of patient −0.052 from −0.10 to − 0.00 0.038 −0.048 from − 0.10 to 0.00 0.059 − 0.021 from − 0.08 to 0.03 0.39
Female gender of patient −0.743 from −2.15 to 0.66 0.30 −0.011 from −1.50 to 1.48 0.99 −0.682 from −2.25 to 0.88 0.39
Cause of ADM: transfer from other ICUc −0.746 from −3.11 to 1.62 0.48 −0.888 from −3.34 to 1.56 0.43 −1.062 from − 3.71 to 1.59 0.37
Cause of ADM: organ transplantc −1.832 from −3.79 to 0.12 0.062 −1.407 from −3.42 to 0.60 0.15 −0.913 from −3.12 to 1.29 0.36
Cause of ADM: elective surgeryc 0.247 from −1.54 to 2.03 0.75 0.348 from −1.48 to 2.18 0.67 −1.036 from −3.04 to 0.97 0.26
Length of ICU stay > 5 days −0.655 from −1.99 to 0.68 0.33 −0.821 from −2.25 to 0.61 0.26 −0.080 from −1.57 to 1.41 0.92
Death of patient in ICU, yes 3.186 from 1.54 to 4.83 0.0002 1.146 from −0.64 to 2.93 0.21 3.096 from 1.31 to 4.88 0.0008
  1. aCoefficient estimates from a linear mixed effects model on the HADS-depression and HADS-anxiety of family members from all patients. A random intercept was modelled per patient. A total of 198 family members from 179 patients were included in the HADS-depression models. A total of 200 family members from 180 patients were included in the HADS-anxiety model. A total of 201 family members from 182 patients were included in the IES-R-6 posttraumatic stress model
  2. bconfidence interval
  3. creference category is unplanned admission to ICU