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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the study cohort

From: Higher galectin-3 levels are independently associated with lower anxiety in patients with risk factors for heart failure

  n Total study cohort Patients with galectin-3 below the median split Patients with galectin-3 above the median split P value
Clinical data
 Age (years) 1260 66.7 ± 8.0 66.2 67.2 0.028
 Married (%) 1207 66.9 66.1 67.7 0.563
 Body-mass index (kg/m2) 1255 29.2 ± 4.9 29.3 ± 4.8 29.2 ± 5.0 0.661
 Heart rate (beats/min) 1253 70.2 ± 12.0 70.6 ± 12.5 69.7 ± 11.6 0.157
 Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 1257 149.4 ± 21.3 149.1 ± 20.9 149.7 ± 21.8 0.650
 Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 1257 84.1 ± 11.9 84.4 ± 11.8 83.9 ± 12.0 0.408
 6-min walking distance (m) 1160 506.9 ± 111.5 509.1 ± 113.0 504.7 ± 110.1 0.502
 Hypertension (%) 1260 88.7 89.0 88.3 0.672
 Hyperlipidemia (%) 1260 45.1 44.8 45.3 0.871
 Diabetes mellitus (%) 1260 28.3 29.3 27.4 0.470
 Coronary heart disease (%) 1260 21.0 19.6 22.3 0.224
 Previous myocardial infarction (%) 1260 10.3 8.6 12.0 0.044
 Sleep apnea (%) 1260 6.5 7.5 5.5 0.166
 Current smokers (%) 1259 11.2 11.6 10.8 0.884
 LVEF (%) 1249 60.0 ± 8.1 59.9 ± 8.1 60.2 ± 8.1 0.537
 ASE grade 1173 1.07 ± 0.65 1.1 ± 0.66 1.03 ± 0.63 0.001
Neurohumoral parameters
 Galectin-3 (ng/mL) 1260 11.7a (9.9;14.1)b 9.9a (8.7;10.7)b 14.1a (12.8;16.3)b < 0.001
 CT-proAVP (pmol/L) 1220 4.1a (2.6;7.6)b 4.1a (2.6;7.8)b 4.2a (2.6;7.5)b 0.757
 NT-proBNP (pg/mL) 1160 101.4a (52.5;193.1)b 78.6a (43.3;151.9)b 125.6a (65.1;256.1)b < 0.001
 MR-proANP (pmol/L) 1219 91.9a (64.4;135.1)b 87.5a (61.4;128.8)b 96.3a (67.0;143.4)b 0.228
Psychometric variables
 HADS Anxiety 1230 5.1 ± 3.7 5.4 ± 3.9 4.8 ± 3.5 0.005
 SF-36 Physical functioning 1237 72.0 ± 25.0 72.9 ± 25.1 71.0 ± 24.9 0.173
Medication use
 ACE inhibitor (%) 1239 45.0 44.2 45.8 0.570
 AT1 receptor antagonist (%) 1239 19.0 20.3 17.8 0.256
 Beta-blocker (%) 1239 50.0 54.0 46.0 0.005
 Diuretics (%) 1239 49.7 51.4 48.1 0.245
 Statins (%) 1239 31.7 31.7 31.7 0.993
 ASS (%) 1239 35.6 36.7 34.5 0.399
 Insulin and/or oral antidiabetics (%) 1239 21.1 20.7 21.6 0.671
  1. Results are presented as means and standard deviations, percentages or frequencies, amedian, b25th and 75th percentile. ASE American Society of Echocardiography, CT-proAVP C-terminal pro-arginine vasopressin, HADS anxiety subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction, MR-proANP mid-regional pro-atrial natriuretic peptide, NT-proBNP N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, SD standard deviation