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Table 5 Estimated mean difference and standardized mean difference in low QOL participants (EQ5D-5 L ≤0.80)

From: Pilot study of a basic individualized cognitive behavioral therapy program for chronic pain in Japan

 Baseline to post-treatmentBaseline to follow-up
 MDSMD (Hedge’s g)MDSMD(Hedge’s g)
Overall QOL measures
 EQ5D-5 L (primary outcome)0.18 [0.09, 0.27]−1.24 [−2.14, −0.34]0.15 [0.06, 0.24]−1.01 [− 1.88, − 0.14]
 SF-12-PCS3.97 [−4.62, 12.56]−0.32 [−1.14, 0.50]7.51 [−1.35, 16.36]−0.59 [−1.42, 0.25]
 SF-12-MCS11.01 [4.20, 17.83]−1.12 [−2.00, −0.23]7.84 [0.74, 14.95]−0.76 [−1.61, 0.08]
 SF-12-RCS12.11 [6.21, 18.02]−1.33 [−2.24, −0.42]8.85 [2.71, 14.98]−0.94 [−1.80, − 0.07]
Pain severity / Disability
 NRS summary score−1.00 [− 1.66, −0.34]0.96 [0.09, 1.83]−0.48 [−1.17, 0.20]0.45 [−0.38, 1.28]
 PDAS−8.00 [−15.86, −0.14]0.71 [−0.14, 1.55]−3.75 [−11.83, 4.33]0.32 [−0.50, 1.14]
Pain-related psychological variables
 PCS−15.99 [−23.54, −8.43]1.40 [0.48, 2.32]−15.76 [−23.6, −7.93]1.34 [0.43, 2.25]
 TSK-11−3.81 [−8.37, 0.75]0.58 [−0.26, 1.41]−4.23 [−8.96, 0.50]0.62 [−0.22, 1.46]
 PSEQ14.14 [5.90, 22.38]−1.12 [−2.00, −0.24]16.03 [7.48, 24.57]−1.23 [−2.12, −0.33]
Depressive symptoms
 PHQ-9 total−5.56 [−8.46, −2.67]1.33 [0.42, 2.24]−4.82 [−7.82, −1.83]1.11 [0.23, 1.99]
  1. MD Mean difference, SMD Standardized mean difference (Hedge’s g), QOL Quality of life, EQ5D-5 L EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire five level, SF-12-PCS Medical Outcomes Study 12-Item Short Form Health Survey-Physical Component Summary, MCS Mental Component Summary, RCS Role/Social Component Summary, NRS Numerical Rating Scale, PDAS Pain Disability Assessment Scale, PCS Pain Catastrophizing Scale, TSK-11 Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia eleven, PSEQ Pain Self-Efficacy Questionnaire, PHQ-9 Patient Health Questionnaire-9