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Table 1 Dietary intakes of the participants across tertiles of the dietary inflammatory index1

From: The relationship between dietary inflammatory index and psychosomatic complaints profiles: results from SEPAHAN cross-sectional study

Variables Tertiles of the dietary inflammatory index P value2
1 (−5.55, −2.60) 2 (−2.61, − 1.52) 3 (− 1.53, 4.61)
n 939 940 939  
Energy (kcal/d) 2040.02 ± 25.94 2273.71 ± 25.67 2844.32 ± 26.05 < 0.0001
Carbohydrate (% of total daily energy) 50.64 ± 0.28 48.41 ± 0.27 48.42 ± 0.29 < 0.0001
Fat (% of total daily energy) 36.30 ± 0.23 38.07 ± 0.22 38.18 ± 0.24 < 0.0001
Protein (% of total daily energy) 15.29 ± 0.08 14.93 ± 0.08 14.22 ± 0.08 < 0.0001
Fiber (g/d) 27.12 ± 0.16 22.96 ± 0.16 17.67 ± 0.17 < 0.0001
Caffeine (mg/d) 88.37 ± 3.27 96.49 ± 3.14 112.97 ± 3.37 < 0.0001
Total folate intake (μg/d) 604.36 ± 4.28 569.21 ± 4.11 549.68 ± 4.41 < 0.0001
Vitamin B6 (mg/d) 2.24 ± 0.01 2.01 ± 0.01 1.69 ± 0.01 < 0.0001
Vitamin B12 (μg/d) 2.99 ± 0.04 3.00 ± 0.04 2.90 ± 0.04 0.101
Mg (mg/d) 366.34 ± 1.68 333.74 ± 1.61 284.99 ± 1.73 < 0.0001
Omega-3 fatty acids (g/d) 2.28 ± 0.04 2.25 ± 0.04 2.23 ± 0.04 0.648
Food groups
 Fruit (g/d) 452.98 ± 7.53 311.71 ± 7.23 196.13 ± 7.76 < 0.0001
 Vegetables (g/d) 322.29 ± 3.74 235.29 ± 3.59 161.13 ± 3.85 < 0.0001
 Nuts, legumes and soy (g/d) 65.72 ± 1.24 58.79 ± 1.19 43.07 ± 1.27 < 0.0001
 White meat (g/d) 66.27 ± 1.55 64.54 ± 1.48 60.46 ± 1.59 0.039
 Red meat (g/d) 83.02 ± 1.40 82.09 ± 1.35 69.79 ± 1.44 < 0.0001
 Hydrogenated vegetable oil (g/d) 9.67 ± 0.38 10.52 ± 0.37 11.36 ± 0.39 0.014
 Refined grains (g/d) 338.03 ± 5.67 375.38 ± 5.44 460.88 ± 5.84 < 0.0001
 Whole grains (g/d) 57.00 ± 2.69 51.73 ± 2.58 23.19 ± 2.77 < 0.0001
  1. 1Values are Mean ± SE. Nutrients were adjusted for age, sex and total energy intake (kcal). Energy intake was adjusted for age and sex. Tertile 1: low pro-inflammatory properties, tertile 2: medium pro-inflammatory properties and tertile 3: high pro-inflammatory properties
  2. 2From analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), with energy considered as the absolute amount per day