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Table 1 Changes in Chalder FS scores and blood biomarkers by a two-month yoga intervention in the yoga group

From: The longitudinal effects of seated isometric yoga on blood biomarkers, autonomic functions, and psychological parameters of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome: a pilot study

Profile RV Pre Post 95% CI UPV FPV C FC
Fatigue
 Chalder FS score   25.9 ± 6.1 19.2 ± 7.5 −6.7 ± 6.9 − 10.6; − 2.9 0.002 0.002   
Serum biomarkers
 Cortisol (μg/dL) 3–20 11.5 ± 8.3 10.4 ± 6.3 −1.0 ± 4.7 −3.7; 1.7 0.552 1 0.601 0.801
 DHEA-S (μg/dL) 13–290 178.4 ± 67.7 180.5 ± 66.5 2.1 ± 25.2 −12.5; 16.6 0.763 1 0.794 0.907
 TNF-α (pg/mL) 0.7–1.7 0.9 ± 0.2 0.8 ± 0.2 −0.1 ± 0.3 − 0.2; 0.1 0.478 1 0.006 0.048
 IL-6 (pg/mL) < 4.0 1.1 ± 0.6 1.2 ± 0.6 0.1 ± 0.7 −0.3; 0.5 0.478 1 0.833 0.833
 PRL (ng/mL) < 20 11.4 ± 6.3 11.1 ± 6.3 −0.3 ± 5.9 −3.6; 2.9 0.839 0.958 0.219 0.876
 Carnitine
  Total (μmol/L) 45–91 53 ± 12.5 52.6 ± 12.4 0.4 ± 10.0 −5.9; 5.2 0.885 0.885 0.292 0.584
  Free (μmol/L) 36–74 43.9 ± 11.3 43.1 ± 11.2 −0.8 ± 10.3 −6.5; 4.9 0.767 1 0.538 0.861
  Acyl (μmol/L) 6–23 9.1 ± 3.1 9.6 ± 3.7 0.4 ± 3.4 −1.5; 2.3 0.650 1 0.240 0.639
Plasma biomarkers
 TGF-β1(ng/mL) 1.6–3.2 13.1 ± 16.2 10 ± 8.5 −3.1 ± 14.1 −11.6; 5.5 0.753 0.941 0.943 0.943
 BDNF (pg/mL) 6186–42,580 5758 ± 8184 4237 ± 4522 − 1521 ± 5442 − 4663; 1621 0.594 0.990 0.922 1
 MHPG (ng/mL) 3.2–5.9 3.6 ± 1.1 3.7 ± 1.3 0.1 ± 0.8 −0.3; 0.5 0.925 0.925 0.880 1
 HVA (ng/mL) 4.4–15.1 9.1 ± 3.7 10.9 ± 9.4 1.8 ± 6.7 −1.9; 5.5 0.379 0.947 0.257 1
 α-MSH (pg/ml) 12.7–14.5 16.8 ± 5.2 17.6 ± 5.1 0.8 ± 1.5 −0.2; 1.8 0.112 0.560 0.580 1
Autonomic function indices
 HR (bpm)   88.1 ± 8.5 85 ± 9.5 −3.1 ± 12.0 −10.3; − 4.1 0.369 1 0.096 0.288
 HF (ms2) 83–3630 74.7 ± 79.4 70.4 ± 62.3 −4.3 ± 87.4 −57.1; 48.5 0.861 1 0.007 0.042
 LF (ms2) 193–1009 163.4 ± 197.1 204.9 ± 363.9 41.5 ± 434.3 − 220.9; 304.0 0.972 0.972 0.563 0.563
 LF/HF 1.1–11.6 4.5 ± 5.4 4.8 ± 7.1 −0.2 ± 5.1 −2.8; 3.3 0.463 1 0.341 0.682
 CVR-R (%)   3.5 ± 1.6 3.5 ± 1.5 −0.1 ± 2.3 −1.4; 1.3 0.507 0.760 0.351 0.526
 RR (/min)   17.4 ± 3.9 16.4 ± 5.2 −1.0 ± 5.1 −4.1; 5.1 0.497 0.994 0.538 0.645
  1. Values are mean ± standard deviation
  2. RV Reference values
  3. Pre Mean values before intervention
  4. Post Mean values after intervention
  5. ∆: The mean difference between Pre and Post values, i.e. Post value – Pre value
  6. P value Paired t-test or Wilcoxon signed-rank test between Pre and Post values
  7. 95% CI 95% Confidence interval of ∆ (Lower bound; Upper bound)
  8. UPV Unadjusted P values
  9. FPV FDR-adjusted P values for multiple comparisons
  10. C Correlation between ∆Chalder FS scores and ∆ values of plasma/serum biomarkers and autonomic function indices; two-tailed
  11. FC FDR-adjusted P values for the correlations
  12. n.s not significant, n = 11–15
  13. The numbers on Italic: The probability of normal distribution is violated by Kolmogorov-Smirnov test
  14. The numbers on bold indicate there is a significant difference