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Fig. 1 | BioPsychoSocial Medicine

Fig. 1

From: The longitudinal effects of seated isometric yoga on blood biomarkers, autonomic functions, and psychological parameters of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome: a pilot study

Fig. 1

Schematic representation of this study and related previous studies. In the first study, we compared the changes in Chalder FS scores in yoga and control groups in an RCT [25]. In the second study, we investigated the short-term effect of seated isometric yoga, in which POMS, ANS function, and blood biomarkers except α-MSH were compared just before (pre-yoga) and after a single session of seated isometric yoga (post-yoga) on the day of the last visit of the intervention period [26]. In this study, we investigated the longitudinal effects of seated isometric yoga, in which Chalder FS scores, ANS function, blood biomarkers, HADS, and TAS-20 were compared on the day of the first visit before practicing yoga (pre-intervention) and the day of the last visit before practicing yoga (post-intervention) following an intervention period. Marks in blue were measured in both the yoga group and the control group. Marks in black were measured only in the yoga group. In this study, we again showed changes in the Chalder FS scores (■), which had been previously reported [25]. Most, but not all, data on the blood biomarkers and ANS tests of the pre-yoga period in the second study [26] were the same as those of the post-intervention period in the present study. For details, please read the associated text. INT, intervention

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