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Table 3 Overview of the studies reporting the effectiveness of board games in the other conditions

From: The effectiveness of intervention with board games: a systematic review

Authors Design Content of board game Participants Intervention Impact Effect size of board game between pre test and post test or follow-up test (Cohen’s d) Effect size of board game between the mean gain of the main experimental group and the other groups (Cohen’s d)
Mouton et al. (2017) [34] A quasi-experimental longitudinal study: two group pre-post comparative test The giant exercising board game: it required participants to perform strength, flexibility, balance and endurance activities. The tarpaulin surface was printed with 24 numbered squares of 50 × 50 cm and surrounded by a walking lane. Each square was colored according to the component of physical fitness that was to be performed (ie, 6 squares/component): strength, flexibility, balance, and endurance. The rules were simple and made available to the participants in a folder adjacent to the mat. Taking turns, participants turned the wheel and had reach the next square with the color targeted by the arrow. After completing the requested exercises, participants were expected to do systematically two laps on the walking lane. Participants made their way through the squares until the finish line after the 24th square. The playing time of a session ranged between 30 and 60 min and the game requires a minimum of 2 participants. Participants were 21.
The intervention group: n = 10 (mean age: 82.5 ± 6.3), the post-intervention: n = 9, the follow-up after 3 months: n = 8.
The control group: n = 11 (mean age: 89.9 ± 3.1), the post-intervention: n = 10, the follow-up after 3 months: n = 9.
The intervention group: 4 supervised exercising sessions were planned on the board game during the first week and then 3, 2, and 1 sessions were planned during the second, third, and fourth week of the intervention.
The control group: participants in the control group were requested neither to change their lifestyle during the study nor to get involved in any new type of physical activity.
The intervention group significantly increases steps per day (number), energy expenditure per day and quality of life and improves body balance and gait abnormalities, the strength of ankle extensors and flexors. d = 0.06 (between pre and post test) on Steps Per Day (number).
d = 0.50 (between pre and follow-up) on Steps Per Day (number).
d = 0.36 (between pre and post test) on Tinetti Test.
d = 0.65 (between pre and follow-up) on Tinetti Test.
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Fernandes et al. (2014) [35] RCT The educational board-game: in this study, the educational materials are composed of seven parts, illustrating the hospital stages: (i) Hospital admission; (ii) Healthcare professionals and hospital rules; (iii) Medical instruments; (iv) Medical procedures; (v) Anesthesia and Surgery room; (vi) Recovery room; and (vii) Aftercare and Going home. Each part is composed of clear explanations about specific topics and intervention stages (e.g. information about healthcare professionals, medical instruments, clinical procedures and induction of anesthesia), as well as explanations of specific hospital and medical rules (e.g. reasons why they should not eat or drink before surgery, the changing of clothes and parental separation during surgery). These educational information was provided though a board game. Participants were 125 children (mean age: 10.09 ± 1.43).
The experimental group: n = 45 (mean age: 10.29 ± 1.25), the educational booklet (n = 15), the educational video (n = 15), the educational board-game (n = 15).
The comparison group: n = 45 (mean age: 9.84 ± 1.48), the entertainment booklet (n = 15), the entertainment video (n = 15), the entertainment board-game (n = 15).
The control group: n = 35 (mean age: 10.14 ± 1.57).
The experimental group: participants received educational materials about surgery and hospitalization in the format of a board game, a video or a booklet.
The comparison group: participants received materials in the format of a board game, a video or a booklet but the materials contained no information about surgery or hospitalization.
The control group did not receive any material.
Children in the experimental group showed significant lower preoperative worries than children in both the comparison group and the control group.
Children received the educational board-game showed lower preoperative worries than children received the entertainment booklet, video, or board-game group.
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Blasco-Fontecilla et al. (2016) [36] A quasi-experimental longitudinal study: one pre-post comparative test The chess game Participants were 44 children with Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (6–17 years old). All children had weekly 1 h sessions over a period of 11 consecutive weeks taught by a chess expert. Participants took chess training lessons in groups of up to 10 individuals. Children with ADHD significantly decreased in the severity of ADHD (both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity). d = − 0.85 (between pre and post test) on Swanson, Nolan and Pelham Scale for parents (SNAP-IV)-total.
d = − 0.87 (between pre and post test) on SNAP-IV-Inattention.
d = − 0.61 (between pre and post test) on SNAP-IV-Hyperactivity-Impulsivity.
d = − 0.86 (between pre and post test) on Abbreviated Conner’s Rating Scales for parents.
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Kim et al. (2014) [7] A quasi-experimental longitudinal study: two group pre-post comparative test The Go game Participants were 34 children.
The ADHD group: 17 drug-naïve children with ADHD (mean age: 10.1 ± 1.5).
The control group: 17 age- and sex-matched comparison subjects with-out ADHD (mean age: 10.2 ± 1.6).
During the 16 weeks, both ADHD children without medication and children of control group were asked to learn and play Go for 2 hours/day with an instructor of the game of Go. Participants played Go under the instructor’s education for 2 h a day during weekday, Monday to Friday. Go training with the same protocol had been provided. There were significant improvement of severity of ADHD symptoms in children with ADHD.
Children with ADHD ameliorated cognitive flexibility and cognitive persistence.
The change of theta/beta right of prefrontal cortex during 16 weeks was greater in children with ADHD than children of the control group.
d = 0.57 (between pre and post test) on total of Digit Span Test.
d = 0.80 (between pre and post test) on Digit Span Forward Task.
d = 1.33 (between pre and post test) on Digit Span Backward Task.
d = 1.28 (between pre and post test) on Children’s Trails Test (CCTT)-1.
d = − 0.23 (between pre and post test) on CCTT-2.
Unable to calculate about the severity of ADHD
d = 1.18 (between the mean gain of the intervention group and the control group at the post test) on total of Digit Span Test.
d = 0.88 (between the mean gain of the intervention group and the control group at the post test) on Digit Span Forward Task.
d = 1.28 (between the mean gain of the intervention group and the control group at the post test) on Digit Span Backward Task.
d = 0.32 (between the mean gain of the intervention group and the control group at the post test) on Children’s Trails Test (CCTT)-1.
d = − 0.29 (between the mean gain of the intervention group and the control group at the post test) on CCTT-2.
Unable to calculate about the severity of ADHD
Lin et al. (2015) [8] RCT The Go game Participants were 147 patients.
The short-time group: n = 49.
The long-time group: n = 49.
The control group: n = 49.
The short-time group: the short-time group play Go 1 h daily for 6 months.
The long-time group: the long-time group play Go 2 h daily for 6 months.
The control group: the control group play doesn’t play Go.
Playing Go improved depression and anxiety and ameliorated Alzheimer Disease manifestations by up-regulating brain derived neurotrophic factor levels. Unable to calculate Unable to calculate