Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 1 Overview of the studies reporting the effectiveness of board games in educational knowledge

From: The effectiveness of intervention with board games: a systematic review

Authors Design Content of board game Participants Intervention Impact Effect size of board game between pre test and post test or follow-up test (Cohen’s d) Effect size of board game between the mean gain of the main experimental group and the other groups (Cohen’s d)
Khazaal et al. (2013) [15] RCT The Pick-Klop game: it includes more than 300 cards with questions, each with three response options. The questions are about (1) smoking and tobacco history, (2) tobacco components and their biological effects, (3) reinforcement mechanisms involved in smoking addiction, (4) cognitive and behavioral mechanisms involved in the maintenance of smoking, (5) smoking cigarettes as a coping strategy, (6) costs of tobacco addiction and the benefits of quitting smoking, (7) stages of change, (8) cognitive and behavioral mechanisms involved in behavioral change, and (9) medications and treatments that help during smoking cessation. Players draw a card in one of the following categories: question, surprise, or temptation. If they answer the question cards correctly, players may gain points. Surprise cards add amusement, allowing players to obtain a gift or secret cards that allow them to help or block another player during play at the moment of their choice. The number of temptation cards which illustrate lapse and relapse processes, as well as relapse prevention strategies, increases at the end of the game board. Participants were current daily smokers who were adults (18–65 years old).
The Pick-Klop group: n = 120 (mean age: 33.7 ± 13.4), 2 weeks: completers n = 97, 3 month: completers n = 94.
The psychoeducation group: n = 60 (mean age: 28.7 ± 10.8), 2 weeks: completers n = 43, 3 months: completers n = 38.
The waiting list: n = 60 (mean age: 30.0 ± 10.0), 2 weeks: completers n = 47, 3 months: completers n = 41.
The Pick-Klop group: two sessions (1.5 h each) of the Pick-Klop game.
The psychoeducation group: two sessions (1.5 h each) of psychoeducation about smoking and smoking cessation.
Scores on attitudes towards nicotine replacement therapy, attitudes towards smoking, and smoking self-efficacy improved for participants allocated to the Pick-Klop group and the psychoeducation group with respect to the waiting list. d = 0.71 (between pre and post test) on Attitudes Towards Nicotine Replacement Therapy Scale (ANRT)-Perceived Advantage.
d = 0.59 (between pre and follow-up) on ANRT-Perceived Advantage.
d = 0.14 (between pre and post test) on ANRT-Drawback.
d = 0.23 (between pre and follow-up) on ANRT-Drawback.
d = − 0.46 (between pre and post test) on ANRT-"Don’t know” Answers.
d = − 0.60 (between pre and follow-up) on ANRT-"Don’t know” Answers.
d = 0.21 (between pre and post test) on Attitudes Towards Smoking Scale (ATS)- Adverse Effects of Smoking.
d = 0.12 (between pre and follow-up) on ATS - Adverse Effects of Smoking.
d = − 0.27 (between pre and post test) on ATS-Psychoactive Benefits of Smoking.
d = − 0.26 (between pre and follow-up) on ATS-Psychoactive Benefits of Smoking.
d = − 0.30 (between pre and post test) on ATS-Pleasure of Smoking.
d = − 0.44 (between pre and follow-up) on ATS-Pleasure of Smoking.
d = 0.15 (between pre and post test) on Smoking Self-Efficacy Questionnaire.
d = 0.51 (between pre and follow-up) on Smoking Self-Efficacy Questionnaire.
d = − 0.09 (between pre and post test) on Cigarettes Smoked Per Day.
d = − 0.67 (between pre and follow-up) on Cigarettes Smoked Per Day.
Unable to calculate
Wanyama et al. (2012) [16] RCT The “make a positive start today!” board game: it is an educational board game on the uptake of knowledge about HIV and sexually transmitted infections. It is intended to increase people living with HIV’s participation and attention, to generate knowledge on HIV, sexually transmitted infections and antiretroviral treatment, and to enhance prevention behavior. Participants were 180 patients.
The intervention group: n = 90 (mean age: 60).
The standard of care group: n = 90 (mean age: 55).
The intervention group played the “make a positive start today!” board game.
The standard of care group participated a standardized health talk.
The intervention group which played the “make a positive start today!” board game has higher uptake of knowledge of HIV and sexually transmitted infections than the standard of care group. Unable to calculate Unable to calculate
Nieh & Wu (2018) [17] cRCT The Galaxy Rescuers game: it is designed for 2 to 6 players. The storyline of the game is about 6 characters attending the training school to become the rescuers of the Galaxy. The game includes 3 stages. At the first stage, the players earn points by answering questions about bullying. At the second stage, the players complete a mix and match game by matching characters, such as a bully, a victim, a reinforcer, or a defender and their roles in a bullying incident. The third stage is a collaborative game in which the players need to work together to accomplish their training tasks. Participants were 328 students (11–12 years old).
The game-only group: n = 116.
The game-with-debriefing group: n = 125.
The control group: n = 87.
The game-only group played the Galaxy Rescuers game.
The game-with-debriefing group played the Galaxy Rescuers game and conducted reflection and discussion.
The control group conducted regular bulling curriculum using conventional teaching methods, such as antibullying videos and worksheet assignments.
The Galaxy Rescuers game significantly increased players’ knowledge about bullying.
The game-with-debriefing group showed a larger increase in bullying knowledge than the game-only group.
The game-with-debriefing group also showed a change in bullying attitude and empathy.
Unable to calculate Unable to calculate
Martins et al. (2018) [18] cRCT The board game educational intervention “Trilha Família Amamenta” (Breastfeeding Family’s Trail). Participants were 171 children in the third grade of elementary school. Analyzed participants were 99.
The intervention group: n = 51, post-assessment after 30th: n = 48.
The control group: n = 56, post-assessment after 30th: n = 51.
The intervention group: children participated in the educational intervention with the board game.
The control group: children did not participate in the educational intervention with the board game.
Scores for knowledge on breastfeeding were higher in the intervention group, on the 7th and 30th, than the control group.
Within the intervention group, there was a significant increase of the means of scores for knowledge on breastfeeding in the posttest for the 30th day.
d = 1.50 (between pre and post test at the 7th day) on Breastfeeding Knowledge.
d = 1.81 (between pre and post test at the 30th day) on Breastfeeding Knowledge.
d = 0.81 (between the mean gain of the intervention group and the control group at the 7th day) on Breastfeeding Knowledge.
d = 0.93 (between the mean gain of the intervention group and the control group at the 30th day) on Breastfeeding Knowledge.
Viggiano et al. (2018) [19] cRCT The board game “Kaledo”: it is a new educational board game to improve nutrition knowledge and to promote a healthy lifestyle. The game is designed to be attractive for people of every age from kids to adults. A typical game session requires two to four players and lasts about 15–30 min. Participants were 1313 children.
The treatment group: n = 837, the first post-assessment at 8 months: n = 651, the second post-assessment at 18 months: n = 254.
The control group: n = 476, the first post-assessment at 8 months: n = 356, the second post-assessment at 18 months: n = 202.
The treatment group: the children participated in one session (15–30 min) with the board game Kaledo, every week for 20 weeks.
The control group: the children did not play with Kaledo.
The treated group significantly increased the consumption of healthy food, and decreased junk food consumption compared to the control group.
The treated group significantly increased in frequency and duration of physical activity compared to the control group.
The BMI z-score in the treated group significantly decreased compared to that in the control group.
Unable to calculate Unable to calculate
Karbownik et al. (2016) [20] RCT The board game “AntimicroGAME” was designed to integrate bacteriology and mechanisms of action of antimicrobial drugs. The factual content of the “AntimicroGAME” was based around the existing basic medical pharmacology syllabus for the undergraduate course in medicine and further revised by an independent senior specialist in medical pharmacology. Participants were 124 students.
The board game group: n = 63 (mean age: 23.2 ± 1.1).
The control group (lecture-based seminar): n = 61 (mean age: 23.6 ± 1.7).
The board game group: participants played board game “AntimicroGAME”.
The control group: participants received lecture-based seminar.
The board game group significantly increases knowledge retention at post-test in final examination.
Knowledge retention of board game group was higher than lecture-based seminar group.
Unable to calculate Unable to calculate
Viggiano et al. (2015) [21] cRCT The board game “Kaledo” Participants were 3110 (9–19 years old).
The treatment group: n = 1663 (mean age: 13.3), the follow-up after 6 months: n = 1076, the follow-up after 18 months: n = 624.
The control group: n = 1447 (mean age: 13.0), the follow-up after 6 months: n = 1080, the follow-up after 18 months: n = 421.
The treatment group: the treatment group received Kaledo each week over 20 consecutive weeks.
The control group: the control group did not receive any intervention.
At the first post-assessment after 6 months, the treatment group obtained significantly higher scores than the control group on the adolescent food habits checklist (the examination of healthy eating behaviors in adolescents), nutrition knowledge, healthy and unhealthy diet and food, physical activity and lifestyle, food habits.
The treated group had significantly lower BMI z-score with respect to the controls at the first post-assessment after 6 months, and second post-assessment after 18 months.
Unable to calculate Unable to calculate
Charlier & Fraine (2013) [22] cRCT The educational board game in first aid: the game board is a landscape of a developing country built by the players as the game progress. The goal of the game is to build the most first aid posts and hospitals by collecting question cards (representing building material). Participants were 120 children in general secondary.
The board game group: n = 62.
The lecture group: n = 58.
The board game group: participants played the board game.
The lecture group: participants received a lecture about first aid with video, pictures, and demonstrations.
The board game group and the lecture group showed significantly increase in first aid knowledge.
The lecture group was significantly more effective in increasing knowledge for first aid, as compared to the board game group.
d = 1.40 (between pre and post test) on Knowledge of First Aid.
d = 0.78 (between pre and retention test) on Knowledge of First Aid.
d = − 1.84 (between the mean gain of the intervention group and the lecture group) on Knowledge of First Aid.
d = − 1.65 (between the mean gain of the intervention group and the lecture group) on Knowledge of First Aid.
Amaro et al. (2006) [10] cRCT The board game “Kaledo” Participants were 291(11–14 years old).
The treatment group: n = 188, the complete post assessment: n = 153 (mean age: 12.3 ± 0.8).
The control group: n = 103, the complete post assessment: n = 88 (mean age: 12.5 ± 0.7).
Treatment group: the treatment group participated Kalèdo every week in one play session (15–30 min), during 24 weeks.
Control group: control group did not receive any intervention.
The treatment group showed a significant increase in nutrition knowledge and in weekly vegetable intake with respect to the control group. Unable to calculate Unable to calculate
Zeedyk et al. (2001) [11] RCT (the control group only is convenience sampling) The road safety board game: players take the part of characters who have to get home from school safely, by rolling dice and moving the playing piece around the board. In the process of getting home, characters are required to carry out a number of errands (e.g., posting a letter at the post office, returning a book to the library), each of which involves crossing the road. The players must decide the safest way of accomplishing the road crossing. The first player to get their playing piece ‘home’, having completed all the tasks safely, is declared the winner. Participants were 120 (4–5 years old).
The playmat model group: n = 27.
The board game group: n = 29.
The talk using illustrated posters and flip-chart materials group: n = 29.
The control group: n = 35.
The playmat model group, the board game group, and the talk using illustrated posters and flip-chart materials group: each intervention was administered for only a single session, lasting approximately 20 min.
The control group: control group did not receive any intervention.
Each interventions were signieficantly effctive in increasing children’s knowledge about safe and dangerous locations at which to cross the street, and that the knowledge was retained for a period of 6 months.
At post-test, score of the knowledge for the control group was siginificantly lower than scores for the intervention groups.
Unable to calculate Unable to calculate
Bartfay & Bartfay (1994) [23] A quasi-randomized experimental study The lifestyles board game: it is a board game (50 by 60 cm) that consists of dice, plastic tokens, six lifestyle risk factor score cards, and 40 game question cards. The games can be played by two to six individuals and requires approximately 60 min to complete. Players attempt to collect tokens awarded by the nurse to cancel the 10 lifestyle risk factors depicted on their score cards, by providing correct answers to questions on the 40 game cards. Participants were 23 students.
The board game group: n = 12.
The control group: n = 11.
The board game group: the board game group participated twice, 2 weeks apart, for a period of 60 min.
The control group: the control group carried on with their regularly scheduled classroom activities.
The board game group significantly increased knowledge of anatomy and physiology, diet and nutrition, and lifestyle risk factors.
The gain knowledge on post-test were found to be significant between the board game group and the control group.
Unable to calculate Unable to calculate