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Table 2 Changes in psychosocial and cognitive variables for Shogi-assisted cognitive behavioral therapy (S-CBT) and control group, according to the levels of subjecvtive well-being (SWB)

From: Subjective well-being and problem-solving skills for alleviating the stress of elderly men attending a randomized controlled trial of shogi-assisted cognitive behavioral therapy

  Scores at baseline and follow-up Change scores from baseline
SCBT group Control group Adjusted SCBT-Control difference (95%CI)a Effect size
Mean (SD) Mean (SD) (Cohen’s d)b
Low SWB group (n = 30) (n = 16) (n = 14)   
Mental health status, K6 (total score range: 0–20)
 Baseline 7.00 (3.79) 5.71 (4.34)
 Post-intervention 6.15 (4.43) 4.09 (3.91) 1.72 (− 1.26, 4.69) 0.18
Social network scale (score range: 0–15)
 Baseline 8.63 (3.83) 6.93 (2.40)
 Post-intervention 7.69 (3.72) 7.00 (3.63) −0.47 (−2.74, 1.80) − 0.15
 Cognitive behavioral functioning (score range: 1–5)
Distraction activity when depressed
 Baseline 3.13 (1.26) 3.57 (1.16)
 Post-intervention 3.54 (1.20) 3.00 (1.26) 0.90 (−0.01, 1.81) 0.46
Behavior inhibition when depressed
 Baseline 2.63 (1.36) 2.64 (1.01)
 Post-intervention 2.15 (1.14) 2.64 (0.81) −0.44 (−1.28, 0.39) − 0.12
Proble solving skill against stress
 Baseline 3.00 (0.82) 3.29 (0.99)
 Post-intervention 3.85 (0.90) 2.91 (0.94) 1.01 (0.27, 1.74) 0.50
Self-reinforcement
 Baseline 2.88 (0.81) 2.50 (0.85)
 Post-intervention 3.77 (1.01) 2.73 (1.01) 0.92 (0.08, 1.76) 0.32
Negative autonomic thought
 Baseline 3.50 (1.32) 2.79 (1.19)
 Post-intervention 2.92 (1.44) 3.00 (1.10) −0.29 (−1.24, 0.66) − 0.19
High SWB group (n = 31) (n = 17) (n = 14)   
Mental health status, K6 (total score range: 0–20)
 Baseline 3.76 (3.07) 3.64 (2.92)
 Post-intervention 4.00 (3.44) 4.62 (4.19) −0.68 (−2.82, 1.45) − 0.13
Social network scale (score range: 0–15)
 Baseline 7.12 (4.01) 7.35 (5.14)
 Post-intervention 6.93 (2.74) 6.77 (2.77) 0.40 (−1.37, 2.17) 0.15
 Cognitive behavioral functioning (score range: 1–5)
Distraction activity when depressed
 Baseline 3.12 (1.36) 3.36 (1.34)
 Post-intervention 4.07 (0.70) 3.69 (1.11) 0.43 (−0.24, 1.11) 0.23
Behavior inhibition when depressed
 Baseline 2.35 (0.93) 2.29 (0.91)
 Post-intervention 1.73 (0.80) 2.46 (0.78) −0.73 (−1.35, 0.10) − 0.28
Proble solving skill against stress
 Baseline 3.47 (1.12) 3.14 (1.23)
 Post-intervention 4.07 (0.70) 3.62 (0.87) 0.44 (−0.19, 1.07) 0.02
Self-reinforcement
 Baseline 2.47 (1.07) 3.14 (1.03)
 Post-intervention 3.47 (1.13) 2.77 (0.73) 1.01 (0.26, 1.76) 0.58
Negative autonomic thought
 Baseline 3.24 (1.09) 2.50 (1.16)
 Post-intervention 2.33 (1.18) 3.00 (1.15) −0.61 (−1.58, 0.37) −0.39
  1. aAdjusted group differences were estimated using the method of Vickers & Altman [17]
  2. bStandardized effect size (Cohen’s d) was calculated as the adjusted differences between intervention and control groups divided by the pooled within group standard deviation