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Table 1 Characteristic symptoms of patients with Burning Mouth Syndrome

From: Current management strategies for the pain of elderly patients with burning mouth syndrome: a critical review

1 Pain may immigrate or spread independent of the anatomy of peripheral nerves
(facial skin is not usually affected)
2 Spontaneous pain that worsens as the day progresses
3 No pain during eating, sleeping or concentrating on something
4 Symptom relief with candy or chewing gum
5 Symptom often follows or is associated with a history of medication, recent illness, or dental treatment
6 Regardless of the nature of onset, symptoms persist for many years
7 Fear of cancer/ cancerophobia
8 Sensitive to hot and/or spicy foods
9 Symptoms increased by talking or upon stress or fatigue
10 Little effect with NSAIDs, steroid ointments, gargling, tooth brushing etc.
11 Dysgeusia; loss of taste, taste disturbance, such as a bitter or metallic taste
12 Subjective dry mouth /increased thirst
13 Except burning/numbness, pain often accompanied by discomfort sensation (sore mouth, “rubbed with teeth”, “astringent persimmon juice”, “roughness”, “sticky”, e.g)