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Table 2 Changes in the mean heart rate and lnHF in each group before and after the intervention

From: Hearing laughter improves the recovery process of the autonomic nervous system after a stress-loading task: a randomized controlled trial

  Laughter group (n = 45) Rest Group (n = 45) Interaction Main effect
Group × Time Time Group
Mean (SD) F P F P F P
Mean heart rate
 Time 1 70.31 (6.32) 73.10 (7.68) 4.80 0.009 163.1 < 0.001 3.15 0.079
 Time 2 77.62 (7.78) 78.95 (7.69)
 Time 3 70.55 (6.38) 74.34 (8.11)
lnHF
 Time 1 6.31 (0.48) 6.06 (0.85) 23.9 < 0.001 63.6 < 0.001 8.62 0.004
 Time 2 5.58 (0.63) 5.56 (0.94)
 Time 3 6.72 (0.62) 5.81 (0.73)
  1. Time 1: During rest (10 min)
  2. Time 2: During the Uchida-Kraepelin test (15 min)
  3. Time 3: During each intervention (five minutes)
  4. SD standard deviation
  5. lnHF natural logarithm of high-frequency component of heart rate variability