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Table 2 Comparison of the background characteristics between the women with and without dizziness

From: Dizziness in peri- and postmenopausal women is associated with anxiety: a cross-sectional study

  Not suffered from dizziness
(n = 303)
Suffered from dizziness
(n = 168)
p-value
Age and menopause status
 Age, years, mean (SD) 51.4 (5.1) 50.7 (4.7) 0.106a
 Menopausal status (premenopausal /perimenopausal/postmenopausal/surgical menopause, %) 26.1/16.2/43.6/14.2 28.0/22.6/35.7/13.7 0.238c
Body composition, mean (SD)
 Height, cm 157.0 (5.3) 157.4 (5.7) 0.500a
 Body weight, kg 52.7 (8.8) 54.4 (9.6) 0.049a
 Body mass index, kg/m2 21.4 (3.4) 22.0 (3.8) 0.067a
 Body fat, % 26.8 (7.5) 27.9 (7.9) 0.127a
 Muscle mass, kg 35.9 (2.9) 36.3 (3.1) 0.147a
 Water mass, kg 27.4 (4.0) 27.8 (3.2) 0.328a
 Waist-to-hip ratio, % 85.9 (6.0) 86.8 (7.0) 0.121a
 Visceral fat level 4.7 (2.5) 5.0 (2.8) 0.215b
Cardiovascular parameters, mean (SD)
 Systolic pressure, mmHg 124.8 (15.9) 127.6 (17.9) 0.083a
 Diastolic pressure, mmHg 79.9 (11.0) 80.6 (12.4) 0.507a
 Heart rate, beats/min 64.0 (11.7) 63.3 (9.8) 0.494a
 Cardio-ankle vascular index 7.52 (0.78) 7.48 (0.75) 0.610a
 Ankle-brachial pressure index 1.11 (0.06) 1.11 (0.06) 0.334a
Basal metabolism, mean (SD)
 Body temperature, (°C) 36.3 (0.48) 36.3 (0.45) 0.757a
 Resting energy expenditure, kcal/day 1591 (387) 1625 (430) 0.385a
Physical fitness, mean (SD)
 Hand-grip strength, kgf 25.2 (4.6) 25.0 (4.9) 0.569a
 Reaction time, cm 21.8 (4.1) 22.6 (4.3) 0.053a
 Sit and reach test, cm 36.5 (9.7) 37.2 (9.4) 0.489a
Physical symptoms, mean (SD)
 MHR-QOL vasomotor symptom score 1.7 (2.0) 2.4 (2.1) < 0.001b
Psychological symptoms, mean (SD)
 MHR-QOL insomnia symptom score 2.0 (2.2) 2.7 (2.1) < 0.001b
 Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale’s depression subscale score 6.2 (4.0) 8.1 (3.9) < 0.001b
 Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale’s anxiety subscale score 6.9 (3.9) 8.8 (3.6) < 0.001b
Lifestyle characteristics, %
 Habit of regular exercise, yes/no 47.2/52.8 34.3/65.7 0.008c
 Amount of daily caffeinated beverage consumption, more than 3 cups/1–3 cups/none 66.6/24.8/8.6 61.3/32.1/6.5 0.208c
 Frequency of alcohol consumption, daily/sometimes/never 11.6/31.6/56.8 7.1/28.6/64.3 0.174c
 Habit of smoking, more than 20 cigarettes per day/1–20 cigarettes per day/none 2.3/8.3/89.4 3.6/8.3/88.1 0.728c
  1. MHR-QOL Menopausal Health-Related Quality of Life Questionnaire
  2. aUnpaired t-test
  3. bMann Whitney U-test
  4. cFisher’s exact test