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Table 1 Participant characteristics and comparison of ANr and ANbp patients

From: Purging behaviors relate to impaired subjective sleep quality in female patients with anorexia nervosa: a prospective observational study

  All (n = 20) ANr (n = 8) ANbp (n = 12) P
Age at admission, years 28.6 ± 13.1 26.4 ± 17.1 30.1 ± 10.2 0.549
Body mass index, kg/m2 13.3 ± 2.2 12.6 ± 1.5 13.7 ± 2.5 0.256
Duration of illness, years 7.2 ± 8.9 2.6 ± 2.7 10.2 ± 10.4 0.031*
Current menstruation 3(15%) 0(0%) 3(25%) 0.193
Use of sedative drugs 5 (25%) 0(0%) 5(42%) 0.051
Habitual eating behaviors
 Binge-eating alone 0(0%) 0(0%) 0(0%)  
 Vomiting 9 (45%) 0(0%) 9 (75%)
 Chewing 3 (15%) 0(0%) 3(25%)
 No binge-eating/vomiting/chewing 8(40%) 8(100%) 0(0%)
Drug abuse
 Laxative overuse 2 (10%) 0(0%) 2(17%)  
 Uretic misuse 1 (5%) 0(0%) 1(8%)
CES-D, score (0–60) 28.3 ± 14.6 24.0 ± 16.5 31.1 ± 13.1 0.299
PSQI-J
 Global PSQI-J, score (0–21) 7.05 ± 4.21 4.63 ± 2.62 8.67 ± 4.38 0.031*
 C1 subjective sleep quality, score (0–3) 1.50 ± 0.83 1.25 ± 0.71 1.67 ± 0.89 0.281
 C2 sleep latency, score (0–3) 1.05 ± 1.15 0.38 ± 0.74 1.50 ± 1.17 0.027*
 C3 sleep duration, score (0–3) 1.20 ± 1.06 1.00 ± 0.93 1.33 ± 1.16 0.504
 C4 habitual sleep efficiency, score (0–3) 0.50 ± 1.00 0.00 ± 0.00 0.83 ± 1.19 0.034*
 C5 sleep disturbances, score (0–3) 1.10 ± 0.64 1.00 ± 0.76 1.17 ± 0.58 0.583
 C6 use of sleep medication, score (0–3) 0.60 ± 1.14 0.38 ± 1.06 0.75 ± 1.22 0.487
 C7 daytime dysfunction, score (0–3) 1.10 ± 0.85 0.63 ± 0.74 1.42 ± 0.79 0.038*
Impaired sleep qualitya 11(55%) 2(25%) 9(75%) 0.040†
Circadian rhythm disruptionb 9(45%) 1(13%) 8(67%) 0.025†
Abnormal sleep durationc 6(30%) 0(0%) 6(50%) 0.024†
  1. Figures are in n (%) or means ± SD. *P < 0.05 on t-test. †P < 0.05 on Fisher’s exact test. aGlobal PSQI-J > 5 score. bSleep-onset time before 21 h or after 25 h, or wake-up time before 5 h or after 9 h. cSleep duration ≥10 or ≤5 h. ANr anorexia nervosa restricting type, ANbp anorexia nervosa binge-eating/purging type, CES-D Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression, PSQI-J Japanese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index