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Table 2 Serum concentrations of amino acids, free carnitine, acyl-carnitine obtained from patients and the respective reference ranges, as well as the correlations of their concentrations with blood ammonia concentrations

From: Association between the blood concentrations of ammonia and carnitine/amino acid of schizophrenic patients treated with valproic acid

constituent Unit Total (n = 37) correlation coefficient
Reference range Mean ± SD Patients exhibiting below the lower limits of the reference range (%) Patients exhibiting values of 1.3-times or greater than the upper limits of the reference range (%) r value p value
Free Carnitine μmol/L 36-74 33 ± 13 41 0 0.02 0.91
Acyl-Carnitine μmol/L 6-23 8 ± 4 38 0 −0.24 0.15
1-Methyl-histidine nmol/mL <9.1 5 ± 5 0 8 −0.09 0.66
3-Methyl-histidine nmol/ml TRA-8.2 4 ± 2 0 5 −0.30 0.08
Alanine nmol/mL 258.8-615.2 458 ± 130 3 8 0.24 0.15
Anserine nmol/ml ND ND 0 0 - -
Arginine nmol/mL 31.8-149.5 128 ± 32 0 27 −0.27 0.10
Asparagine nmol/ml 43.8-90.6 56 ± 11 19 0 −0.23 0.17
Aspartic acid nmol/mL TRA-7.2 5 ± 2 0 5 0.08 0.63
Carnosine nmol/mL ND ND 0 0 - -
Citrulline nmol/mL 17.9-48.0 45 ± 12 0 27 −0.42 0.01*
Cystathionine nmol/mL ND 2 ± 0 0 73 −0.09 0.66
Cystin nmol/mL 4.7-34.8 19 ± 11 3 14 −0.25 0.14
Ethanolamine nmol/mL TRA-10.5 7 ± 2 0 3 0.15 0.37
Glutamate nmol/mL 12.2-82.7 122 ± 59 0 68 0.44 〈0.01*
Glutamine nmol/mL 418.0-739.8 700 ± 128 0 38 −0.41 0.01
Glycine nmol/mL 140.4-427.3 394 ± 102 0 38 −0.54 〈0.01*
Hdroxylysine nmol/mL ND ND 0 ND - -
Histidine nmol/mL 63.0-105.2 94 ± 15 0 27 0.00 0.99
Homocystine nmol/mL ND ND 0 0 - -
Hydroxyproline nmol/mL TRA-18.8 17 ± 5 0 27 −0.30 0.10
Isoleucine nmol/mL 37.0-100.4 78 ± 15 0 8 −0.07 0.67
Leucine nmol/mL 74.2-169.1 134 ± 25 0 8 0.05 0.76
Lysine nmol/mL 125.7-281.9 237 ± 44 0 22 −0.30 0.08
Methionine nmol/mL 15.5-38.6 30 ± 5 0 8 −0.14 0.40
Ornithine nmol/mL 42.6-141.2 86 ± 25 0 3 −0.05 0.78
Phenylalanine nmol/mL 43.5-79.8 59 ± 9 0 3 0.02 0.91
Phosphoethanol-amine nmol/mL TRA TRA 0 0 - -
Proline nmol/mL 71.3-373.0 289 ± 241 0 11 −0.16 0.36
Sarcosine nmol/mL TRA 8 ± 3 0 51 −0.34 0.15
Serine nmol/mL 91.5-186.4 168 ± 34 0 24 −0.04 0.81
Taurine nmol/mL 46.4-128.2 110 ± 43 3 35 −0.15 0.37
Threonine nmol/mL 74.2-216.1 144 ± 35 0 3 −0.15 0.39
Tryptophan nmol/mL 36.2-79.3 37 ± 10 59 0 0.35 0.03*
Tyrosine nmol/mL 38.4-89.4 72 ± 18 0 16 0.18 0.28
Valine nmol/mL 156.2-360.4 248 ± 41 0 0 −0.02 0.89
α-aminoadipic acid nmol/mL ND ND 0 0 - -
α-amino-n-butyric acid nmol/mL 8.1-31.0 35 ± 8 0 70 −0.10 0.06
β-Alanine nmol/mL TRA-11.8 2 ± 1 0 0 0.05 0.88
β-Amino-iso-butyric acid nmol/mL <5.9 3 ± 2 0 5 −0.18 0.32
γ-Amino-nbutyric acid nmol/mL ND ND 0 0 - -
  1. The correlation between the concentration of ammonia and each item is presented. A p-value of 0.05 was regarded as significant
  2. TRA Trace
  3. ND Not detectable
  4. *: p < 0.05