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Table 2 Mean, SD, internal consistencies (Cronbach’s alpha), and correlations of the variables (N = 894)a)

From: Job crafting, work engagement, and psychological distress among Japanese employees: a cross-sectional study

  Measures Range Mean SD Cronbach’s alpha 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
1 Ageb)       −0.09** 0.38*** −0.08* −0.25*** 0.07* −0.11** 0.12*** −0.03
2 Genderc)        −0.20*** −0.12*** −0.01 −0.13*** −0.06 0.03 0.00
3 Job positiond)         0.10** 0.00 0.23*** −0.11*** 0.12*** 0.04
4 Increasing structural job resources 5–25 14.2 4.2 0.90      0.37*** 0.61*** 0.22*** 0.50*** −0.11**
5 Increasing social job resources 5–25 9.1 3.0 0.76       0.42*** 0.32*** 0.30*** 0.01
6 Increasing challenging job demands 5–25 10.6 3.9 0.84        0.25*** 0.54*** −0.05
7 Decreasing hindering job demands 5–30 12.4 4.1 0.80         0.00 0.18***
8 Work engagement 0–54 23.4 9.2 0.93          −0.31***
9 Psychological distress 1–60 29.9 8.5 0.93          
  1. ***p < 0.001 **p < 0.01 *p < 0.05
  2. a)Responses for the items were summed up for increasing structural job resources, increasing social job resources, increasing challenging job demands, decreasing hindering job demands, work engagement, and psychological distress, respectively
  3. b)1 = Under 20 years, 2 = 20–29 years, 3 = 30–39 years, 4 = 40–49 years, 5 = over 50 years
  4. c)1 = Male, 2 = Female
  5. d)1 = Non-manager, 2 = Lower-level manager, 3 = Middle-level manager, 4 = Top management