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Table 5 Multiple regression models for comparing the effects of receiving and giving supports to predict depressive symptoms

From: Giving social support to outside family may be a desirable buffer against depressive symptoms in community-dwelling older adults: Japan gerontological evaluation study

Marital status Married Single
Gender Men (n=10,673) Women (n=7,552) Men (n=1,196) Women (n=5,211)
  B p 95 % CI B p 95 % CI B p 95 % CI B p 95 % CI
Emotional supports
Model 1-1
 Partner
 Receiving (RES) -.061 *** −0.55 ; −0.24 -.099 *** −0.71 ; −0.40       
 Giving (GES) -.051 *** −0.47; −0.17 -.039 * −0.35 ; −0.06       
Model 1-2
 Children
 Receiving (RES) .020   −0.03 ; 0.25 -.004   −0.17 ; 0.13 -.024   −0.57 ; 0.29 -.060 *** −0.52 ; −0.16
 Giving (GES) -.078 *** −0.56 ; −0.30 -.031 * −0.31 ; −0.01 -.070   −0.83 ; 0.02 -.055 ** −0.48 ; −0.12
Model 1-3
 Outside family
 Receiving (RES) -.017   −0.26 ; 0.06 .013 * −0.09 ; 0.23 -.015   −0.56 ; 0.37 .018   −0.10 ; 0.29
 Giving (GES) -.086 *** −0.64 ; −0.34 -.105 *** −0.70 ; −0.38 -.123 ** −1.19 ; −0.28 -.143 *** −0.98 ; −0.59
Instrumental supports
Model 2-1
 Partner
Receiving (RIS) -.042 *** −0.65 ; −0.22 -.084 *** −0.69 ; −0.38       
Giving (GIS) -.073 *** −0.97 ; −0.54 -.061 *** −0.75 ; −0.32       
Model 2-2
 Children
Receiving (RIS) -.039 ** −0.33 ; −0.08 -.016   −0.22 ; 0.05 -.128 *** −1.26 ; −0.41 -.053 ** −0.59 ; −0.16
Giving (GIS) -.052 *** −0.40 ; −0.15 -.069 *** −0.50 ; −0.22 -.095 ** −0.91 ; −0.18 -.123 *** −0.89 ; −0.53
Model 2-3
 Outside family
 Receiving (RIS) .024 * 0.04 ; 0.73 -.019   −0.46 ; 0.07 .038   −0.33 ; 1.06 -.009   −0.35 ; 0.20
 Giving (GIS) -.068 *** −0.87 ; −0.46 -.061 *** −0.60 ; −0.24 -.072   −1.19 ; 0.00 -.110 *** −0.96 ; −0.51
  1. B: standardized beta, p : * < .05, ** < .005, *** .0005
  2. Model was controlling for age, comorbidity of serious diseases, living status, equivalent income, years of schooling
  3. Receiving and giving supports in every category along with covariates were added into each regression model