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Table 1 Characteristics of participants

From: Giving social support to outside family may be a desirable buffer against depressive symptoms in community-dwelling older adults: Japan gerontological evaluation study

  All participants Analyzed participants
  Men (n=16,669) Women (n=20,171) Men (n=11,869) Women (n=12,763)
Age (mean (SD), years) 72.9 (5.92) 73.5 (6.33) 72.8 (5.89) 73.5 (6.32)
GDS scores (Mean (SD)) 3.45 (3.340) 3.61 (3.359) 2.91 (2.638) 3.07 (2.656)
GDS scores n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%)
 0 2,375 (14.2) 2,165 (10.7) 2,196 (18.5) 1,966 (15.4)
 1 2,587 (15.5) 2,747 (13.6) 2,346 (19.8) 2,514 (19.7)
 2 2,143 (12.9) 2,386 (11.8) 1,953 (16.5) 2,150 (16.8)
 3 1,556 (9.3) 1,804 (8.9) 1,400 (11.8) 1,617 (12.7)
 4 1,204 (7.2) 1,351 (6.7) 1,079 (9.1) 1,232 (9.7)
 5 892 (5.4) 1,011 (5.0) 784 (6.6) 910 (7.1)
 6 718 (4.3) 753 (3.7) 654 (5.5) 675 (5.3)
 7 565 (3.4) 616 (3.1) 501 (4.2) 547 (4.3)
 8 439 (2.6) 505 (2.5) 386 (3.3) 454 (3.6)
 9 366 (2.2) 434 (2.2) 315 (2.7) 388 (3.0)
 10 283 (1.7) 340 (1.7) 255 (2.1) 310 (2.4)
 11 242 (1.5) 291 (1.4)   
 12 193 (1.2) 233 (1.2)   
 13 142 (0.9) 171 (0.8)   
 14 105 (0.6) 123 (0.6)   
 15 50 (0.3) 36 (0.2)   
 Unknown 2,809 (16.9) 5,205 (25.8)   
Medical treatment n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%)
 Cancer, cardiovascular disease or apoplexy 3,561 (21.4) 2,967 (14.7) 2,408 (20.3) 1,772 (13.9)
 None or unknown 13,108 (78.6) 17,204 (85.3) 9,461 (79.7) 10,991 (86.1)
Basic activities of daily living n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%)
 Independent 15,560 (93.3) 18,938 (93.9) 11,869 (100) 12,763 (100)
 Needs help 394 (2.4) 732 (3.6)   
 Unknown 715 (4.3) 501 (2.5)   
Marital status n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%)
 Marrieda 14151 (84.9) 10878 (53.9) 10673 (89.9) 7552 (59.2)
 Widowed (<1 year) 263 (1.6) 855 (4.2) 179 (1.5) 477 (3.7)
 Widowed (≥1 year) 1133 (6.8) 6255 (31.0) 739 (6.2) 4047 (31.7)
 Divorced 251 (1.5) 539 (2.7) 175 (1.5) 350 (2.8)
 Unmarried 145 (0.9 504 (2.5) 103 (0.9) 337 (2.6)
 Unknown 726 (4.0) 1140 (6.0)   
Live alone n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%)
 Yes 824 (4.9) 3028 (15.0) 542 (4.6) 1831 (14.3)
 No 15845 (95.1) 17143 (85.0) 11327 (95.4 10932 (85.7)
Equivalent income (Japanese Yen) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%)
 <1 million 1244 (7.5) 2199 (10.9) 766 (6.5) 1,368 (10.7)
 1 - 4 million 7097 (42.6) 6284 (31.2) 5,471 (46.1) 4,652 (36.4)
 ≥4 million 919 (5.5) 835 (4.1) 743 (6.3) 675 (5.3)
 Unknown 7409 (44.4) 10853 (53.8) 4,889 (41.2) 6,068 (47.5)
Years of schooling n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%)
 <6 years 328 (2.0) 838 (4.2) 166 (1.4) 434 (3.4)
 6 - 9 years 8325 (49.9) 10676 (52.9) 5,701 (48.0) 6,616 (51.8)
 10 - 12 years 5053 (30.3) 6508 (32.3) 3,849 (32.4) 4,440 (34.8)
 ≥13 years 2629 (15.8) 1545 (7.7) 2,040 (17.2) 1,091 (8.5)
 Unknown 334 (2.0) 604 (3.0) 113 (1.0) 182 (1.0)
Social supports % % % %
 Receiving emotional support
  from partnera 78.1 66.0 80.0 69.2
  from children 29.2 50.4 30.4 53.5
  from outside family 24.5 43.3 26.1 46.3
Giving emotional support     
  to partnera 75.7 55.2 77.6 58.0
  to children 32.6 41.9 35.0 45.6
  to outside family 28.1 48.5 30.5 52.8
Receiving instrumental support     
  from partnera 92.2 76.8 93.2 79.1
  from children 40.2 63.9 41.9 67.2
  from outside family 3.2 8.5 3.4 9.1
Giving instrumental support     
  to partnera 91.7 88.4 93.3 90.4
  to children 40.1 55.1 43.0 60.7
  to outside family 8.0 17.1 8.5 18.9
  1. aDenominators of partner supports were married participants