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Table 1 Prospective studies reporting an association between caregiver stress and childhood asthma

From: Parental stress and the onset and course of childhood asthma

Author, year Caregiver   Children F/U Period Results
  Attribute Stress and relevant factors   Attribute N Age, baseline Outcomes
Onset of disease         
Wright, 2002 Caregivers Perceived stress   Predisposed 496 2 to 3 m Wheezing 1y Positive assoc. b/w caretakers’ perceived stress and child's wheezing occurrence
Milam, 2008 Parent Perceived stress   Healthy 2888 5 to 6 y Wheezing 1y Positive assoc. b/w parental stress and child's wheezing incidence, in parents with asthma or in boys
Wood, 2011 Mother Pregnancy anxiety, postnatal depression, perceived stress, difficult life circumstances   Predisposed 560 Pre-born Wheezing 1y (2nd/3rd trimester to age 1y) Positive assoc. b/w mother's stress/depression and multiple wheezing
Reyes, 2011 Mother Prenatal/postnatal demoralization   African Americans/Hispanics 279 Pre-born Wheezing 5y (3rd trimester to age 5y) Positive assoc. b/w mother's prenatal demoralization with wheezing
Guxens, 2014 Mother and Father Psychological distress, depression, anxiety   General population 4848 Pre-born Wheezing, age 1 to 4y; asthma diagnosis, age 6y 6y (2nd trimester to age 6y) Positive assoc. b/w mother's prenatal distress/depression/anxiety and child's wheezing/asthma
Course of disease         
Weil, 1999 Parent Mental health, life stress, social support, parenting style   Patients with asthma 1528 4 to 9 y Asthma symptoms, wheezing, hospitalization 9 m Positive assoc. b/w mental health and hospitalization
Bartlett, 2004 Mother Depression   Patients with asthma 158 8y in average Asthma morbidity, ED visits 6 m No assoc. b/w mother's depression and morbidity; Some assoc. b/w mother's depression and a constellation of beliefs and attitudes that may influence adherence
Nagano, 2010 Mother Behavioral pattern associated with chronic stress, parenting style   Patients with asthma 223 2 to 12 y Asthma symptoms (severity) 1y <7y: positive assoc. b/w chronic irritation/emotional suppression and asthma severity; no assoc. with parenting style. 7+ y: positive assoc. b/w over interference and asthma severity; negative assoc. with egocentric behavior.
Lange, 2011 Mother and Father Fathers: PTSD, depression, antisocial behaviour Mothers: depression   Puerto Rican twins and their parents 339 pairs 1 y Asthma symptoms, oral steroid use, hospitalization 2y Positive assoc. b/w paternal depression and oral steroid use, maternal depression and hospitalization