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Table 5 Stratification of the five scale scores by gender and age

From: Development of a novel, short, self-completed questionnaire on empowerment for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and an analysis of factors affecting patient empowerment

  Scale Self-managed dietary behaviors1) Self-managed exercise behaviors2) Psychological impact of diabetes3) Patient-family communications:
Positive feedback4) Negative feedback5)
Gender Male (n = 162) 12.90 ± 2.70 7.67 ± 2.97 10.51 ± 2.95 9.45 ± 4.27 5.86 ± 2.99
Female (n = 176) 13.27 ± 2.36 7.55 ± 3.19 11.48 ± 3.20 7.70 ± 3.78 4.83 ± 2.59
    P < 0.0043 P < 0.0001 P = 0.0008
Age ≤ 50 (n = 40) 12.83 ± 2.15 6.10 ± 2.90 11.73 ± 3.06 8.35 ± 4.29 6.10 ± 3.19
50 – 59 (n = 74) 12.24 ± 2.47 7.31 ± 3.09 11.41 ± 2.95 8.18 ± 3.72 5.65 ± 3.03
60 – 69 (n = 126) 12.98 ± 2.63 7.58 ± 3.12 11.19 ± 3.14 8.23 ± 3.89 5.42 ± 3.00
70 – 79 (n = 78) 13.99 ± 2.22 8.47 ± 2.90 10.45 ± 3.12 9.29 ± 4.64 4.65 ± 2.12
≥ 80 (n = 20) 14.00 ± 2.77 8.50 ± 2.72 9.25 ± 3.01 9.30 ± 4.23 4.55 ± 2.14
One-way ANOVA P = 0.0002 P = 0.0010 P = 0.0125 P = 0.3212 P = 0.0397
  1. 1), 2), 4): Higher scores are better; 3), 5): Lower scores are better.
  2. Data are expressed as mean ± SD.