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Table 4 Comparison of scale scores between the non-treatment and the four treatment groups

From: Development of a novel, short, self-completed questionnaire on empowerment for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and an analysis of factors affecting patient empowerment

Therapy Diet Exercise Hypoglycemic agents Insulin
Scale Treatment Non-treatment P-value Treatment Non-treatment P-value Treatment Non-treatment P-value Treatment Non-treatment P-value
  n = 184 n = 154 (effect size) n = 102 n = 236 (effect size) n = 208 n = 130 (effect size) n = 156 n = 182 (effect size)
Self-managed dietary behaviors1) 13.79 ± 2.05 12.26 ± 2.79 < 0.01 (d = 0.63) 14.03 ± 2.04 12.69 ± 2.61 < 0.01 (d = 0.55) 13.12 ± 2.52 13.05 ± 2.56 0.83 (d = 0.03) 13.14 ± 2.46 13.04 ± 2.59 0.71
Self-managed exercise behaviors2) 7.88 ± 3.14 7.28 ± 3.00 0.07 (d = 0.20) 9.35 ± 2.42 6.85 ± 3.04 < 0.01 (d = 0.87) 7.65 ± 3.04 7.53 ± 3.16 0.72 (d = 0.04) 7.56 ± 3.16 7.64 ± 3.03 0.82
Psychological impact of diabetes3) 10.89 ± 3.42 11.16 ± 2.72 0.43 (d = 0.09) 10.36 ± 3.42 11.30 ± 2.94 0.01 (d = 0.30) 10.57 ± 3.16 11.72 ± 2.92 < 0.01 (d = 0.37) 11.77 ± 2.86 10.37 ± 3.19 < 0.01 (d = 0.46)
Patient–family communication:             
Positive feedback4) 8.98 ± 4.38 8.01 ± 3.71 0.03 (d = 0.24) 9.10 ± 4.55 8.30 ± 3.90 0.10 (d = 0.19) 8.63 ± 4.25 8.40 ± 3.90 0.62 (d = 0.06) 8.72 ± 4.03 8.39 ± 4.19 0.47 (d = 0.08)
Patient–family communication:             
Negative feedback5) 5.28 ± 2.78 5.37 ± 2.90 0.78 (d = 0.03) 4.81 ± 2.49 5.54 ± 2.95 0.03 (d = 0.26) 5.21 ± 2.86 5.51 ± 2.78 0.34 (n = 0.11) 5.34 ± 2.74 5.31 ± 2.92 0.92
HbA1c (%) 7.29 ± 1.00 7.59 ± 1.28 0.02 (d = 0.26) 7.41 ± 0.98 7.44 ± 1.21 0.78 (d = 0.03) 7.44 ± 1.09 7.42 ± 1.24 0.52 (d = 0.02) 7.57 ± 1.16 7.31 ± 1.13 0.04
  1. 1), 2), 4): Higher scores are better; 3), 5): Lower scores are better.
  2. Data are expressed as mean ± SD.