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Table 3 Principal component analysis: does each scale measure a different dimension?

From: Development of a novel, short, self-completed questionnaire on empowerment for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and an analysis of factors affecting patient empowerment

A. Factorial construct validity n = 338
Factor loading after varimax rotation Principal component Principal component Principal component Principal component Principal component
  1 2 3 4 5
A-3 Do you follow the meal plans specified by the physician or dietitian? 0.822 0.098 0.084 0.135 -0.007
A-4 Do you observe balanced food intake in your three meals? 0.828 0.200 -0.000 0.105 -0.002
A-5 Do you stick to the amounts specified for staple foods? 0.811 0.049 -0.011 0.010 -0.130
A-7 Do you eat vegetables at all three meals? 0.508 0.261 -0.164 0.022 -0.037
A-8 Do you exercise more than 20 minutes a day? 0.164 0.912 -0.050 0.072 -0.039
A-9 Do you remember to exercise even if busy at work or home? 0.189 0.903 0.004 0.133 -0.057
A-10 Do you come up with different ways to exercise when the weather is bad? 0.174 0.799 -0.034 0.165 -0.096
B-1 How upsetting is having diabetes for you? -0.128 0.053 0.740 0.031 0.152
B-3 How much uncertainty do you currently experience in your life as a result of being diabetic? 0.068 0.058 0.801 0.007 0.116
B-4 How likely is your diabetes to worsen over the next several years? (Try to give an estimate based on your personal feeling rather than based on a rational judgment.) -0.177 -0.150 0.715 -0.052 -0.071
B-7 To what degree does your diabetes get in the way of your developing life goal? 0.160 -0.065 0.771 0.054 -0.022
D-4 Criticize you for not exercising regularly? 0.025 -0.099 -0.014 0.135 0.788
D-6 Nag you about not following your diet? -0.064 -0.077 0.104 0.205 0.799
D-7 Argue with you about your diabetes self-care activities? -0.124 -0.014 0.093 0.141 0.749
D-1 Praise you for following your diet? 0.058 0.033 0.025 0.781 0.047
D-3 Suggest things that might help you take insulin on time? -0.013 0.064 -0.074 0.569 0.310
D-9 Plan family activities so that they will fit in with your diabetes self-care schedule? 0.191 0.164 0.067 0.650 0.035
D-10 Congratulate you for sticking to your diabetes self-care schedule? 0.023 0.111 0.012 0.761 0.247
B. Correlation within the five scales? n = 338
Pearson’s correlation coefficients Self-managed dietary behaviors Self-managed exercise behaviors Psychological impact of diabetes Patient-family communication:
     Positive feedback Negative feedback
A-3 Do you follow the meal plans specified by the physician or dietitian? 0.643 0.290 0.042 0.197 -0.037
A-4 Do you observe balanced food intake in your three meals? 0.701 0.356 -0.024 0.194 -0.066
A-5 Do you stick to the amounts specified for staple foods? 0.619 0.237 -0.042 0.066 -0.158
A-7 Do you eat vegetables at all three meals? 0.390 0.297 -0.133 0.109 -0.113
A-8 Do you exercise more than 20 minutes a day? 0.329 0.829 -0.085 0.194 -0.109
A-9 Do you remember to exercise even if busy at work or home? 0.361 0.846 -0.038 0.245 -0.108
A-10 Do you come up with different ways to exercise when the weather is bad? 0.330 0.691 -0.070 0.238 -0.118
B-1 How upsetting is having diabetes for you? -0.104 -0.041 0.555 0.079 0.166
B-3 How much uncertainty do you currently experience in your life as a result of being diabetic? 0.049 0.009 0.617 0.068 0.132
B-4 How likely is your diabetes to worsen over the next several years? (Try to give an estimate based on your personal feeling rather than based on a rational judgment.) -0.178 -0.169 0.502 -0.092 0.040
B-7 To what degree does your diabetes get in the way of your developing life goal? 0.102 -0.021 0.553 0.048 0.065
D-4 Criticize you for not exercising regularly? -0.049 -0.110 0.053 0.300 0.529
D-6 Nag you about not following your diet? -0.106 -0.110 0.148 0.344 0.629
D-7 Argue with you about your diabetes self-care activities? -0.142 -0.075 0.122 0.280 0.553
D-1Praise you for following your diet? 0.138 0.159 0.033 0.499 0.233
D-3 Suggest things that might help you take insulin on time? 0.047 0.113 -0.014 0.412 0.330
D-9 Plan family activities so that they will fit in with your diabetes self-care schedule? 0.241 0.265 0.049 0.425 0.175
D-10 Congratulate you for sticking to your diabetes self-care schedule? 0.109 0.188 0.036 0.588 0.358