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Table 2 Construct validity test for the short version of the empowerment questionnaire

From: Development of a novel, short, self-completed questionnaire on empowerment for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and an analysis of factors affecting patient empowerment

  Pearson’s correlation coefficients Cronbach’s α Pearson’s correlation coefficients Cronbach’s α
Self-managed dietary behaviors questionnaire (four-step answers, higher scores are better)     
 Self-managed dietary behaviors scale   0.747   0.778
 A-1 Do you eat three meals a day? 0.245   -  
 A-2 Are you taking your meals at fixed times every day? 0.325   -  
 A-3 Do you follow the meal plans specified by the physician or dietitian? 0.561   0.643  
 A-4 Do you observe balanced food intake in your three meals? 0.666   0.701  
 A-5 Do you stick to the amounts specified for staple foods? 0.570   0.619  
 A-6 Do you eat protein at meals? 0.365   -  
 A-7 Do you eat vegetables at all three meals? 0.489   0.390  
Self-managed exercise behaviors questionnaire (four-step answers, higher scores are better)     
 Self-managed exercise behaviors scale   0.891   0.891
 A-8 Do you exercise more than 20 minutes a day? 0.829   0.829  
 A-9 Do you remember to exercise even if busy at work or home? 0.846   0.846  
 A-10 Do you come up with different ways to exercise when the weather is bad? 0.691   0.691  
ADS questionnaire (five-step answers)     
 Psychological impact of diabetes scale (lower scores are better) 0.758   0.758  
 B-1 How upsetting is having diabetes for you? 0.555   0.555  
 B-3 How much uncertainty do you currently experience in your life as a result of being diabetic? 0.617   0.617  
 B-4 How likely is your diabetes to worsen over the next several years? (Try to give an estimate based on your personal feeling rather than based on a rational judgment.) 0.502   0.502  
 B-7 To what degree does your diabetes get in the way of your developing life goals? 0.553   0.553  
 Sense of self-control over diabetes scale (higher scores are better) 0.552    
 B-2 How much control over your diabetes do you have? 0.382   -  
 B-6 How effective are you in coping with your diabetes? 0.382   -  
 Self-effort in diabetic control scale (higher scores are better)     
 B-5 Do you believe that achieving good diabetic control is due to your efforts as compared to factors which are beyond your control? 1.000   -  
DFBC questionnaire (five-step answers)     
 Patient-family communication scale (negative feedback, lower scores are better) 0.735   0.735  
 D-4 Criticize you for not exercising regularly? 0.529   0.529  
 D-6 Nag you about not following your diet? 0.629   0.629  
 D-7 Argue with you about your diabetes self-care activities? 0.553   0.553  
 Patient-family communication scale (positive feedback, higher scores are better) 0.693   0.695  
 D-1 Praise you for following your diet? 0.454   0.499  
 D-3 Suggest things that might help you take insulin on time? 0.427   0.412  
 D-9 Plan family activities so that they will fit in with your diabetes self-care schedule? 0.469   0.425  
 D-10 Congratulate you for sticking to your diabetes self-care schedule? 0.568   0.588  
 D-13 Exercise with you? 0.255   -  
 D-15 Buy you things containing sugar to carry with you in case of hypoglycemic reaction? 0.380   -