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Table 1 Summary of clinical and demographic variables of diabetes patients (n = 338)

From: Development of a novel, short, self-completed questionnaire on empowerment for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and an analysis of factors affecting patient empowerment

  Male (n = 162) Female (n = 176) P-value
Age (years) 64.09 ± 10.76 63.02 ± 11.20 n.s.
 ≤ 50 19 21  
 50 – 59 37 37  
 60 – 69 57 69  
 70 – 79 38 40  
 ≥ 80 11 9  
Disease duration (years) 12.92 ± 9.59 12.71 ± 10.01 n.s.
BMI 24.01 ± 4.89 24.64 ± 4.79 n.s.
Living together with (includes multiple answers)    
 Spouse 266 (78.7%)  
 Sibling(s) 8 (2.4%)  
 Children 50 (14.9%)  
 Father/Mother 10 (3.0%)  
 Other 4 (1.1%)  
Treatment method (includes multiple answers)    
 Diet 184 (54.4%)  
 Exercise 102 (30.2%)  
 Oral Hypoglycemic Agents 208 (61.5%)  
 Insulin 156 (46.2%)  
 Oral + Insulin 39 (11.5%)  
HbA1c 7.29 ± 1.08 7.56 ± 1.19 0.0158#
  1. Continuous data are expressed as mean ± SD.
  2. Statistical analysis was performed by unpaired t-test.
  3. Nonparametric data (HbA1c) were analyzed by Mann-Whitney U-test.
  4. #: A small sized effect was found d = 0.24.