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Figure 1 | BioPsychoSocial Medicine

Figure 1

From: Development of a novel, short, self-completed questionnaire on empowerment for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and an analysis of factors affecting patient empowerment

Figure 1

Multiple linear regression analyses. Firstly, stepwise multiple linear regression analyses were performed with the scores for Self-managed dietary behaviors, Self-managed dietary behaviors, Psychological impact of diabetes, Patient-family communication (Negative feedback) and Patient-family communication (Positive feedback) as dependent variables; and Age, Gender (0, male; 1, female), Disease duration (years), Number of symptoms (0 - 10), HbA1c level (%, NGSP), and Therapy (1 - 5) as independent variables. Scores for the dependent variables “Psychological impact of diabetes” and “Patient-family communication (Negative feedback) were reversed to “Higher scores are better”. The independent variable “Therapy” was converted to continuous variables as follows; 1, diet or exercise therapy; 2, both diet and exercise therapy; 3, oral hypoglycemic agent therapy regardless of diet and exercise therapy; 4, Insulin therapy regardless of diet and exercise therapy; 5, both oral and insulin therapy regardless of diet and exercise therapy. Secondly, stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was performed with the scores of Patient empowerment and Age, Gender, Disease duration, Number of symptoms, HbA1c level, and Therapy as independent variables. Finally, stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was performed with the scores for Patient empowerment as dependent variables and Self-managed dietary behaviors, Psychological impact of diabetes, Patient-family communication (Negative feedback) and Patient-family communication (Positive feedback) as independent variables. The independent variables with standardized partial regression coefficients >0.2 or < -0.2 are presented as solid arrows.

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