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Table 2 Self-reported happiness as a predictor of mortality, Thai Cohort Study 2009-2012

From: Unhappiness and mortality: evidence from a middle-income Southeast Asian setting

Cohort attributes Multivariate adjusted odds ratio* [95% confidence interval] of mortality predictor
Self-reported happiness**  
 All of the time Reference
 Most of the time 1.66 [0.88-3.11]
 Some of the time 1.69 [0.88-3.23]
 Little of the time 2.60 [1.17-5.80]***
Sociodemographic attributes  
Age-sex groups:  
 Males <40 years Reference
 Females <40 years 0.66 [0.43-0.99]***
 Males ≥40 years 1.34 [0.78-2.31]
 Females ≥40 years 0.57 [0.21-0.74]***
Marital status:  
 Married Reference
 Not married 1.67 [1.17-2.39] ***
 Divorced/widowed 0.99 [0.24-4.16]
Household monthly income (Baht):  
 ≤10000 1.19 [0.41-3.50]
 10001-20000 1.45 [0.71-2.98]
 20001-30000 1.44 [0.84-2.49]
 >30000 Reference
Residence:  
 Rural Reference
 Urban 0.89 [0.66-1.20]
Paid work:  
 ≤10 hours per week Reference
 10-40 hours per week 0.83 [0.51-1.35]
 >40 hours per week 0.74 [0.34-1.61]
Health-risk attributes  
Smoking:  
 Never Reference
 Current 2.45 [1.61-3.74]***
 Former 1.09 [0.71-1.66]
Alcohol drinking:  
 None per week  
 1-2 sessions per week 0.72 [0.43-1.20]
 3+ sessions per week 1.27 [0.42-3.90]
Physical activities:  
 None per week Reference
 1-2 times per week 0.68 [0.45-1.03]
 3-5 times per week 0.96 [0.65-1.44]
 >5 times per week 0.72 [0.39-1.32]
Health and social attributes  
Self-assessed health:  
 Excellent/very good Reference
 Fair 0.97 [0.70-1.34]
 Poor or very poor 1.31 [0.74-2.31]
Cardio-metabolic conditions:  
 No Reference
 Yes 1.33 [0.97-1.84]
Social interaction:  
 Every week Reference
 1–2 times/month 1.08 [0.57-2.05]
 Rarely/never 1.69 [0.62-4.58]
  1. *The Odds Ratio for each variable is mutually adjusted for the influence of all the other variables in the Table.
  2. **The question asks “in the past four weeks, how much of the time did you feel happy?”.
  3. ***Statistical significance at p<0.05.