Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 1 Unhappiness and mortality by cohort attributes, Thai Cohort Study

From: Unhappiness and mortality: evidence from a middle-income Southeast Asian setting

Cohort attributes % proportion (n = 60569) % reported unhappy* Bivariate odds ratio** [95% confidence intervals] for unhappiness by cohort attributes
Alive in 2012 Dead (n=296)
Overall cohort in 2009   5.2 (3068) 8.1 (24)  
Sociodemographic attributes     
Age-sex groups:     
 Males <40 years 24.8 5.3 (1107) 7.6 (9) Reference
 Females <40 years 33.9 5.3 (1554) 10.5 (8) 0.95 [0.86-1.05]
 Males ≥40 years 20.6 4.0 (226) 6.3 (5) 0.68 [0.57-0.81]***
 Females ≥40 years 20.8 5.1 (181) 4.8 (1) 0.80 [0.66-0.98]***
Marital status:     
 Married 55.3 4.3 (1282) 5.0 (7) Reference
 Not married 37.9 5.6 (1158) 9.8 (9) 1.35 [1.22-1.50]***
 Divorced/widowed 6.8 8.7 (320) 11.8 (4) 2.34 [1.97-2.77]***
Household monthly income (Baht):     
 ≤10000 21.8 7.6 (962) 9.0 (6) 1.91 [1.68-2.16]***
 10001-20000 24.3 5.0 (709) 8.3 (6) 1.40 [1.20-1.56]***
 20001-30000 21.9 4.8 (606) 5.6 (4) 1.40 [1.23-1.61]***
 >30000 31.9 3.7 (690) 9.7 (7) Reference
Paid work:     
 ≤10 hours per week 31.4 5.9 (1062) 4.2 (4) Reference
 10-40 hours per week 33.9 4.5 (870) 5.4 (5) 0.90 [0.80-1.01]
 >40 hours per week 34.8 4.9 (973) 15.1 (13) 1.12 [0.99-1.24]
Residence:     
 Rural 44.0 5.2 (1344) 7.6 (10) Reference
 Urban 56.0 5.1 (1653) 8.4 (13) 0.99 [0.94-1.06]
Health behaviours     
Smoking:     
 Never 76.8 4.9 (2190) 8.2 (14) Reference
 Current 8.9 7.2 (369) 5.2 (3) 1.89 [1.63-2.19]***
 Former 14.3 5.2 (434) 8.1 (5) 1.22 [1.08-1.39]***
Alcohol drinking:     
 None per week 72.9 5.0 (2078) 8.3 (16)  
 1-2 sessions per week 19.1 4.9 (534) 9.1 (5) 1.31 [1.16-1.48]***
 3+ sessions per week 8.0 6.3 (289) 2.6 (1) 1.60 [1.36-1.88]***
Physical activity:     
 None per week 22.5 5.7 (1850) 6.2 (9) Reference
 1-2 times per week 33.2 5.3 (1021) 8.1 (6) 0.71 [0.63-0.81]***
 3-5 times per week 32.6 4.2 (806) 10.2 (11) 0.41 [0.36-0.47]***
 >5 times per week 11.7 5.0 (341) 8.8 (3) 0.37 [0.32-0.44]***
Health and social attributes     
Self-assessed health:     
 Excellent/very good 64.6 3.0 (1159) 4.9 (9) Reference
 Fair 29.9 7.1 (1266) 10.3 (9) 5.7 [5.10-6.33]***
 Poor or very poor 5.4 19.4 (627) 23.1 (6) 19.7 [0.42-0.56]***
Cardio-metabolic conditions:     
 No 81.1 5.1 (2349) 7.5 (14) Reference
 Yes 18.9 5.2 (715) 9.3 (10) 1.13 [1.02-1.26]***
Social interaction:     
 Every week 17.0 3.0 (306) 1.7 (1) Reference
 1–2 times/month 64.8 4.5 (1645) 8.2 (13) 2.12 [1.55-2.44]***
 Rarely/never 18.2 8.8 (903) 15.8 (9) 5.02 [4.28-5.88]***
  1. *Unhappiness is classified in 2009 as those reporting happy ‘little’ or ‘none of the time’.
  2. **Bivariate odds ratios are adjusted for age-sex categories for all variables and estimate effects of unhappiness.
  3. ***Statistical significance at p<0.05.