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Table 9 Stress markers in saliva

From: Possible benefits of singing to the mental and physical condition of the elderly

Items Group Before singing After singing
Lysozyme (μ g/mL) Total 13.6 ± 11.7 13.8 ± 9.6
Like singing 13.7 ± 12.8 13.5 ± 9.3
Diskike singing 13.3 ± 8.5 14.6 ± 10.7
Chromogranin A (ng/mL) Total 10.8 ± 16.6 11.6 ± 16.2
Like singing 10.2 ± 12.8 11.0 ± 14.5
Diskike singing 12.6 ± 24.7 13.4 ± 20.7
Cortisol (ng/mL) Total 0.12 ± 0.07 0.09 ± 0.05
Like singing 0.12 ± 0.07 0.09 ± 0.05
Diskike singing 0.12 ± 0.06 0.10 ± 0.05
S–IgA (ng/mL) Total 28.8 ± 16.3 17.7 ± 9.3
Like singing 28.1 ± 17.1 17.5 ± 9.2
Diskike singing 30.6 ± 14.3 18.5 ± 10.0
Amylase (ng/mL) Total 417.8 ± 153.4 430.7 ± 170.3
Like singing 414.4 ± 163.1 439.1 ± 186.7
  Diskike singing 426.8 ± 130.0 408.2 ± 119.8
  1. Values represent the mean ± SD.