Skip to main content

Table 4 Swallowing and oral function

From: Possible benefits of singing to the mental and physical condition of the elderly

Items Group Before singing After singing
RSST (time) Total 4.1 ± 1.8 4.3 ± 1.8
Like singing 4.2 ± 1.7 4.6 ± 1.6
Diskike singing 3.9 ± 2.1 3.5 ± 2.1
Bite force test (KN) Total 0.166 ± 0.108 0.171 ± 0.098
Like singing 0.184 ± 0.123 0.192 ± 0.106
Diskike singing 0.138 ± 0.079 0.139 ± 0.079
Oral moisture content test Total 28.3 ± 1.8 28.8 ± 1.8
Like singing 28.3 ± 1.8 28.9 ± 1.9
Diskike singing 28.2 ± 1.9 28.4 ± 1.6
Unstimulated saliva test (ml) Total 3.3 ± 2.0 4.0 ± 2.2
Like singing 3.3 ± 1.9 3.9 ± 2.3
Diskike singing 3.3 ± 2.2 4.3 ± 2.1
Saxon test (g) Total 4.2 ± 1.8 4.3 ± 1.9
Like singing 4.3 ± 1.8 4.4 ± 2.0
Diskike singing 3.9 ± 1.8 4.3 ± 1.8
Stimulated saliva test (ml) Total 14.9 ± 5.3 15.1 ± 5.6
Like singing 14.9 ± 5.8 14.9 ± 6.1
  Diskike singing 15.0 ± 3.7 15.5 ± 4.1
  1. Values represent the ± SD.
  2. 23 people for the bite force test.
  3. 33 people for the oral moisture content test.