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Table 13 Results of POMS

From: Possible benefits of singing to the mental and physical condition of the elderly

Items Group Before singing After singing
Tension Total 5.2 ± 3.8 2.3 ± 2.3
Like singing 4.3 ± 2.9 2.0 ± 2.3
Diskike singing 7.7 ± 4.9 2.9 ± 2.2
Depression Total 1.2 ± 1.7 0.6 ± 1.3
Like singing 1.2 ± 1.9 0.7 ± 1.3
Diskike singing 1.0 ± 1.2 0.5 ± 1.2
Anger–Hostility Total 0.6 ± 1.2 0.2 ± 0.7
Like singing 0.5 ± 1.2 0.2 ± 0.5
Diskike singing 0.9 ± 1.2 0.3 ± 1.2
Vigor Total 6.9 ± 4.0 7.5 ± 5.3
Like singing 7.4 ± 4.1 8.3 ± 5.7
Diskike singing 5.5 ± 3.4 5.5 ± 3.5
Fatigue Total 2.1 ± 3.1 1.6 ± 2.3
Like singing 2.1 ± 3.2 1.5 ± 2.4
Diskike singing 2.3 ± 2.9 1.8 ± 2.1
Confusion Total 4.4 ± 1.6 3.4 ± 1.6
Like singing 4.3 ± 1.7 3.4 ± 1.7
Diskike singing 4.8 ± 1.3 3.3 ± 1.3
TMD Total 6.6 ± 9.8 0.6 ± 9.4
Like singing 4.9 ± 9.7 -0.5 ± 10.2
  Diskike singing 11.1 ± 8.8 3.3 ± 6.2
  1. Values represent the mean ± SD.