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Table 1 Demographics and panic characteristics (N = 830)

From: The development of agoraphobia is associated with the symptoms and location of a patient's first panic attack

Place of first PA Total (N = 830) 100% 1 At home (N = 308) 37.10% 2 office, school (N = 128) 15.40% 3 driving (N = 100) 12.00% 4 train, bus (N = 128) 15.40% 5 out of home (N = 166) 20.00% statistical
value (F or chi-square)
p-value
Age 34.60 ± 10.01 35.42 ± 10.76 33.77 ± 10.76 33.70 ± 8.18 34.27 ± 9.48 34.54 ± 9.32 0.974 0.421
Sex (M/F) 300 · 530(36.1% · 63.9%) 88 · 220(28.6% · 71.4%) 61 · 67(47.7% · 52.3%) 49 · 51(49.0% · 51.0%) 45 · 83(35.2% · 64.8%) 57 · 109(34.3% · 65.7%) 22.452 < 0.001
Years of Education 13.13 ± 2.20 13.06 ± 2.15 13.06 ± 2.49 13.32 ± 2.10 13.45 ± 2.07 12.95 ± 2.20 1.245 0.29
Drinking (No/Yes) 508 · 288(63.8% · 36.2%) 203 · 88(69.8% · 30.2%) 72 · 54(57.1% · 42.9%) 52 · 43(54.7% · 45.3%) 70 · 55(56.0% · 44.0%) 111 · 48(69.8% · 30.2%) 16.06 0.003
Smoking (No/Yes) 457 · 283(61.8% · 38.2%) 176 · 91(65.9% · 34.1%) 73 · 42(63.5% · 36.5%) 38 · 48(44.2% · 55.8%) 70 · 48(59.3% · 40.7%) 100 · 54(64.9% · 35.1%) 14.298 0.006
Family history 531 · 284(65.2% · 34.8%) 192 · 112(63.2% · 36.8%) 85 · 43(66.4% · 33.6%) 66 · 30(68.8% · 31.3%) 86 · 42(67.2% · 32.8%) 102 · 57(64.2% · 35.8%) 1.472 0.823
First Panic Attack         
Age at first PA 28.96 ± 9.75 29.99 ± 10.25 27.77 ± 11.28 29.29 ± 7.87 27.84 ± 7.84 28.66 ± 9.79 1.823 0.122
Severity (0-4) 3.12 ± 0.92 3.22 ± 0.80 2.84 ± 1.03 3.20 ± 0.88 3.01 ± 1.00 3.17 ± 0.94 3.757 0.005
Consultation behavior         
Consultation hospitals (n) 2.51 ± 2.08 2.59 ± 1.81 2.46 ± 1.81 2.40 ± 3.24 2.16 ± 1.60 2.72 ± 2.18 1.517 0.195
Duration of consultation to psychiatric service (days) 2105.48 ± 2558.39 2015.35 ± 2573.48 2300.57 ± 2746.20 1648.10 ± 1812.51 2377.37 ± 2600.39 2187.63 ± 2710.60 1.488 0.204
At the initial visit         
Agoraphobia (% of each group) 382(46.0%) 115(37.3%) 52(40.6%) 56(56.0%) 78(60.9%) 81(48.8%) 26.836 < 0.001
Depression (SDS score) 40.69 ± 12.04 40.65 ± 11.66 42.71 ± 12.21 38.66 ± 12.49 38.59 ± 12.33 42.11 ± 11.82 2.596 0.035
Anticipation anxiety (0-4) 3.08 ± 1.10 3.00 ± 1.15 3.01 ± 1.08 3.00 ± 1.10 3.14 ± 1.06 3.28 ± 1.00 .651 0.16
Avoidance (0-4) 2.30 ± 1.45 2.04 ± 1.46 2.34 ± 1.46 2.54 ± 1.41 2.46 ± 1.50 2.48 ± 1.38 4.077 0.003